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Using analytical subcellular fractionation techniques, 12% of the total L-alanine aminotransferase activity and 26% of the total L-aspartate aminotransferase activity was localized in enterocyte mitochondria. Alanine and aspartate were products from the oxidation of glutamine and glutamate by enterocyte mitochondria. At low concentrations, malate stimulated(More)
The skin is the largest organ in the body and diabetes induces pathologic changes on the skin that affect glucose homeostasis. Changes in skin glycogen and glucose levels can mirror serum glucose levels and thus the skin might contribute to whole body glucose metabolism. This study investigated the in vivo effects of diabetes, insulin and oleanolic acid(More)
Rat enterocyte mitochondria were prepared with respiratory control ratios of 4 or 5 and occasionally 6. When EGTA was excluded from the mitochondrial incubation medium the calculated P/O ratios were high, especially those based on the first addition of ADP. These ratios were lowered by increasing the EGTA concentration from 1 mM to 2 mM in the mitochondrial(More)
In this study, we investigate the effects of exposure to cadmium and copper on Lymnaea natalensis and Helisoma duryi. The snails were dosed with Cd2+ or Cu2+ for a period of 96h. Snails dosed with Cd accumulated the metal significantly (P<0.05) in tissues but not in shells. Mortality was observed at approximately 1mg Cd/l of culture water. In tissues and(More)
The oxidation of L-glutamate and L-glutamine by enterocyte mitochondria was supported by malate. The stimulation of the rate of oxidation of the two amino acids by small amounts of added malate was 93% and 76% respectively. This could not be accounted for by the oxidation of the small amounts of malate added. Amino-oxyacetate added initially inhibited(More)
Chronic hyperglycaemia (an abnormally high glucose concentration in the blood) resulting from defects in insulin secretion/action, or both, is the major hallmark of diabetes in which it is known to be involved in the progression of the condition to different complications that include diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic neuropathy (diabetes-induced nerve damage)(More)
Artemisinin combination therapies have decreased malaria associated morbidity and mortality in several parts of the world. On the other hand, malaria cases have increased in sub-Saharan Africa largely due to falciparum resistance to the most frequently used drugs (chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) combination). Therapeutic failure has also(More)
In this paper we investigate the potential of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) as biomarkers of water pollution due to copper in the freshwater snails Helisoma duryi and Lymnaea natalensis. Snails were dosed with copper(II) ion concentrations of 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg kg(-1) breeding water for a period of(More)
Studies indicate that Syzygium spp-derived oleanolic acid (OA) enhances renal function of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats as evidenced by its reversal of the previously reported inability of the kidney to excrete Na(+) in these animals. We postulated that OA influences Na(+) excretion in the proximal tubule, the site where two-thirds of filtered(More)
The effect of adenine nucleotides and phosphate on rat small intestine phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) activity was investigated in intact mitochondria. Disruption of the integrity of mitochondria by sonication or freeze-thawing resulted in loss of enzyme activity. ADP was the strongest adenine nucleotide activator of the enzyme giving a V(max) that(More)