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Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites of several eukaryotes. They have a highly complex and unique infection apparatus but otherwise appear structurally simple. Microsporidia are thought to lack typical eukaryotic organelles, such as mitochondria and peroxisomes. This has been interpreted as support for the hypothesis that these peculiar(More)
The gene density of eukaryotic nuclear genomes is generally low relative to prokaryotes, but several eukaryotic lineages (many parasites or endosymbionts) have independently evolved highly compacted, gene-dense genomes. The best studied of these are the microsporidia, highly adapted fungal parasites, and the nucleomorphs, relict nuclei of endosymbiotic(More)
Microsporidia are intracellular parasites of all major animal lineages and have a described diversity of over 1200 species and an actual diversity that is estimated to be much higher. They are important pathogens of mammals, and are now one of the most common infections among immunocompromised humans. Although related to fungi, microsporidia are atypical in(More)
Nosema locustae is a microsporidian parasite of grasshopper pests that is used as a biological control agent, and is one of the emerging model systems for microsporidia. Due largely to its diplokaryotic nuclei, N. locustae has been classified in the genus Nosema, a large genus with members that infect a wide variety of insects. However, some molecular(More)
Microsporidia are well known models of extreme nuclear genome reduction and compaction. The smallest microsporidian genomes have received the most attention, but genomes of different species range in size from 2.3 Mb to 19.5 Mb and the nature of the larger genomes remains unknown. Here we have undertaken genome sequence surveys of two diverse microsporidia,(More)
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites with the smallest known eukaryotic genomes. Although they are increasingly recognized as economically and medically important parasites, the molecular basis of microsporidian pathogenicity is almost completely unknown and no genetic manipulation system is currently available. The fish-infecting(More)
Microsporidia are intracellular parasites that infect a variety of animals, including humans. As highly specialized parasites, they are characterized by a number of unusual adaptations, many of which are manifested as extreme reduction at the molecular, biochemical, and cellular levels. One interesting aspect of reduction is the mitochondrion. Microsporidia(More)
The mitochondrion is one of the defining characteristics of eukaryotic cells, and to date, no eukaryotic lineage has been shown to have lost mitochondria entirely. In certain anaerobic or microaerophilic lineages, however, the mitochondrion has become severely reduced that it lacks a genome and no longer synthesizes ATP. One example of such a reduced(More)
Microsporidia were once considered amitochondriate, but have now been found to retain relict mitochondria called mitosomes. These organelles have been identified by immunolocalization in Trachipleistophora hominis, whereas most data on function have been inferred from the presence of mitochondrial protein-encoding sequences in the genome of Encephalitozoon(More)