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Glutamate receptors are associated with various regulatory and cytoskeletal proteins. However, an understanding of the functional significance of these interactions is still rudimentary. Studies in hippocampal neurons suggest that such interactions may be involved in calcium-induced reduction in the open probability of NMDA receptors (inactivation). Thus we(More)
Tyrosine phosphorylation can upregulate NMDA receptor activity during pathological and physiological alterations of synaptic strength. Here we describe downregulation of recombinant NR1/2A receptors by tyrosine dephosphorylation that requires agonist binding, but is independent of ion flux. The tyrosine residues involved in this new form of NMDA receptor(More)
The Cre/loxP system is increasingly showing promise for investigating genes involved in neural function. Here, we demonstrate that in vivo modification of genes in the mouse brain can be accomplished in a spatial- and temporal-specific manner by targeted delivery of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) encoding a green fluorescent protein/Cre recombinase(More)
Intracellular Ca2+ can reversibly reduce the activity of native N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in hippocampal neurons, a phenomenon termed Ca2+-dependent inactivation. We examined inactivation in heteromeric NMDA receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells using whole-cell recording. NR1-1a/2A heteromers showed reversible(More)
Certain cytokines, the prototype being the highly pleiotropic TNF, have many homeostatic physiological roles, are involved in innate immunity, and cause inflammation when in excess. These cytokines have long been accepted to have central roles in the pathogenesis of systemic or local non-cerebral disease states, whether acute or chronic, and whether or not(More)
Studies using molecular modeling, genetic engineering, neurophysiology/pharmacology, and whole animals have advanced our understanding of where and how inhaled anesthetics act to produce immobility (minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration; MAC) by actions on the spinal cord. Numerous ligand- and voltage-gated channels might plausibly mediate MAC, and(More)
Recent molecular studies of glutamate channels have provided increasingly detailed models of the agonist-binding site and of the channel pore. However, little information is available on the domains involved in channel gating. We examined the molecular determinants for the NR2-subunit specificity of glycine-independent desensitization of NMDA channels using(More)
The number and type of receptors present at the postsynaptic membrane determine the response to the neurotransmitter released from the presynaptic terminal. Because most neurons receive multiple and distinct synaptic inputs and contain several different subtypes of receptors stimulated by the same neurotransmitter, the assembly and trafficking of receptors(More)
Activity-dependent insertion of AMPA-type glutamate receptors is thought to underlie long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral fiber synapses on pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 region. Although it is widely accepted that the AMPA receptors at these synapses contain glutamate receptor type 2 (GluR2) subunits, recent findings suggest that LTP(More)
Phosphatase IIb (calcineurin, CaN) can reduce N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) synaptic responses by enhancing glycine-independent desensitization. We examined the action of CaN on desensitization in recombinant NMDA receptors comprised of NMDA receptor 1 (NR1) and NR2A subunits. The C-terminus of NR2A, but not NR1, was critical for modulation of desensitization(More)