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The monthly advective supply of nutrients and nutrient pool sizes in the Kattegat and the Belt Sea are estimated for the period 1989 – 1996 from a combination of time-dependent hydrodynamic model results and concentration measurements of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), phosphate (DIP) and total nitrogen and phosphorous (TN and TP). The net supply of(More)
Population density can have profound, often negative effects on fitness-related traits and population dynamics, and density dependence is of central importance to many prominent ecological and evolutionary hypotheses. Here, we used experimental manipulations of food, population density, and water conditioning to characterize the mechanisms underlying(More)
Monthly time series of nutrient pools and transport in the Baltic Entrance were computed for the period 1974–1999 from a combination of hydrodynamic model results and observational data obtained in national monitoring programmes. Significant seasonal variations in both nutrient pools and transport were found. For example, inflowing dense nutrient-rich(More)
(This is part 2, continued from " Use of harsh Wafer Probing to Evaluate Traditional Bond Pad Structures "). Goals for circuit under pad (CUP) in aluminum – silicon dioxide (Al – SiO 2) based IC pad structures include the design of metal interconnects in all layers beneath the pad Al, and the ability to withstand harsh probing and wirebonding stress without(More)
IC bond pad structures having Al metallization and SiO 2 dielectric have been traditionally designed with full plates in underlying metallization layers, connected by vias. In addition, pads having bond over active circuitry (BOAC) which are much more sensitive to pad cracks, are likely present in the same IC. Cracks in the pad dielectric weaken the bond(More)
The oxygen level in the deep layers (20 – 40 m) of the Baltic entrance is modelled as a function of an oxygen consumption rate constant and climate forcing. The oxygen level is calculated as median values of the observed oxygen concentrations. Climate forcing is expressed by water temperature and consumption period, representing the time during which the(More)
Economic challenges for small size IC design and manufacturing require: reduced die size without adding layers or other costs, bonding with Cu wire instead of Au wire, and maintained or improved reliability. Die size shrinking involves extensive use of circuit under pad (CUP) or bond over active circuitry (BOAC) on IC's having at least two levels of metal.(More)
An Nepi pocket isolation weakness was identified during ESD qualification of a multi-well CMOS process. Post stress Iddq leakage on an unstressed domain was discovered following supply domain matrix testing. A parasitic NPN was instrumental in creating this unusual failure signature. ESD protection network modifications alleviated the process limitations.
XPressArray-II (XPA-II) is targeted for translation of FPGA prototypes to AMIS structured digital ASICs. In particular, XPA-II I/O design simplifies the translation task by supporting several key requirements. The increasing complexity, functionality, and higher performance of today's FPGAs presents a difficult design challenge for the next generation I/O(More)
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