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Several intersecting host, vector, and environmental factors have led to a re-emergence of rickettsial diseases such as Mediterranean Spotted Fever (MSF), and Dermacentor spp.-borne necrosis-erythema lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL). Some rickettsiae produce diffuse endothelial infection and systemic microvascular leakage leading in some cases to high morbidity(More)
Although influenza (flu) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections are extremely common in children under two years and resolve naturally, a subset develop severe disease resulting in hospitalization despite having no identifiable clinical risk factors. However, little is known about inherent host-specific genetic and immune mechanisms in this(More)
The airway epithelial cell plays a central role in coordinating the pulmonary response to injury and inflammation. Here, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) activates gene expression programs to induce stem cell-like properties, inhibit expression of differentiated epithelial adhesion proteins and express mesenchymal contractile proteins. This process is(More)
A critical goal of outlier detection is to determine whether an outlying value was caused by experimental/human error, or by natural biological diversity. However, because univariate or multivariate methods (e.g., box plots and principle component analysis) typically used for outlier detection use unipartite representations, they cannot distinguish whether(More)
Although first responders use a wide range of decision-support tools to identify toxic chemicals during emergencies, few studies have analyzed the tasks and contexts in which such tools are used. Here we discuss an in-depth analysis of semi-structured interviews conducted with 20 first responders from two US states. In the first phase of the analysis, we(More)
Despite years of preclinical development, biological interventions designed to treat complex diseases such as asthma often fail in phase III clinical trials. These failures suggest that current methods to analyze biomedical data might be missing critical aspects of biological complexity such as the assumption that cases and controls come from homogeneous(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have shown that epigenetic differences can increase the risk of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). However, little is known about heterogeneity underlying such epigenetic differences, which could lead to hypotheses for biological pathways in specific patient subgroups, and corresponding targeted interventions critical for precision(More)
Although a majority of 30-day readmissions of hip-fracture (HFx) patients in the elderly are caused by non-surgical complications, little is known about which specific combinations of comorbidities are associated with increased risk of readmission. We therefore used bipartite network analysis to explore the complex associations between 70 comorbidities(More)