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OBJECTIVE To provide an update to the original Surviving Sepsis Campaign clinical management guidelines, "Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock," published in 2004. DESIGN Modified Delphi method with a consensus conference of 55 international experts, several subsequent meetings of subgroups and key(More)
BACKGROUND Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is required for transcription of many pro-inflammatory genes and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We hypothesized that a known functional polymorphism in the promoter of the NFKB1 gene may affect susceptibility to and outcome from ARDS. METHODS A case control study(More)
BACKGROUND There have been conflicting reports on the efficacy of recombinant human activated protein C, or drotrecogin alfa (activated) (DrotAA), for the treatment of patients with septic shock. METHODS In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial, we assigned 1697 patients with infection, systemic inflammation, and shock who(More)
The role of drotrecogin alfa (activated) (DAA) in severe sepsis remains controversial and clinicians are unsure whether or not to treat their patients with DAA. In response to a request from the European Medicines Agency, Eli Lilly will sponsor a new placebo-controlled trial and history suggests the results will be subject to great scrutiny. An academic(More)
RATIONALE Nitrogen oxide (NO) species are markers for oxidative stress that may be pathogenic in acute lung injury (ALI). OBJECTIVES We tested two hypotheses in patients with ALI: (1) higher levels of urine NO would be associated with worse clinical outcomes, and (2) ventilation with lower VT would reduce urine NO as a result of less stretch injury. (More)
INTRODUCTION Amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is useful in evaluating heart failure, but its role in evaluating patients with shock in the intensive care unit (ICU) is not clear. METHOD Forty-nine consecutive patients in four different ICUs with shock of various types and with an indication for pulmonary artery catheter placement(More)
INTRODUCTION Prediction of death and prolonged mechanical ventilation is important in terms of projecting resource utilization and in establishing protocols for clinical studies of acute lung injury (ALI). We aimed to identify risk factors for a combined end-point of death and/or prolonged ventilator dependence and developed an ALI-specific prediction(More)
RATIONALE Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory adipokine that is the most abundant gene product of adipose tissue. Lower levels have been observed in obesity, insulin resistance, and in critical illness. However, elevated levels early in acute respiratory failure have been associated with mortality. Polymorphisms in adiponectin-related genes (ADIPOQ,(More)