Bryan M. Johnstone

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BACKGROUND In laboratory animals, the consumption of soy protein, rather than animal protein, decreases serum cholesterol concentrations, but studies in humans have been inconclusive. In this meta-analysis of 38 controlled clinical trials, we examined the relation between soy protein consumption and serum lipid concentrations in humans. METHODS We used a(More)
BACKGROUND Although the results of many clinical studies suggest that breast-fed children score higher on tests of cognitive function than do formula-fed children, some investigators have suggested that these differences are related to confounding covariables such as socioeconomic status or maternal education. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to conduct a(More)
Advances in treatment technologies and development of evidence-based standards of care demand better methods for routine assessment of outcomes for schizophrenia in systems of care. This article describes the development and psychometrics of a new instrument to assess outcomes of routine care for persons with schizophrenia in service systems. Candidate(More)
UNLABELLED Schizophrenia leads to impairments in mental, social, and physical functioning, which should be included in evaluations of treatment. OBJECTIVES This study was designed to determine the reliability and validity of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) for schizophrenic patients, to characterize perceived functioning and(More)
This study investigated the relationships between antipsychotic drug use patterns and direct costs for 3,321 Medi-Cal patients with schizophrenia. Ordinary least-squares regression models were used to estimate the impact on costs of receiving antipsychotic drug treatment, delays in treatment, changes in therapy, and continuous therapy. Average costs were(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe antipsychotic medication use patterns in an inner-city, outpatient population of indigent patients with schizophrenia. METHODS This retrospective cohort study used the Regenstrief Medical Record System to identify schizophrenic patients receiving antipsychotic medication(s). Patients were included and identified as initiating a new(More)
BACKGROUND CONTEXT Treatment guidelines suggest that most acute low back pain (LBP) episodes substantially improve within a few weeks and that immediate use of imaging and aggressive therapies should be avoided. PURPOSE Assess the actual practice patterns of imaging, noninvasive therapy, medication use, and surgery in patients with LBP, and compare their(More)
BACKGROUND Health plans commonly face the conflicting demands of trying to provide access to novel technologies, including new classes of medications, while trying to contain costs. These demands are particularly acute for California's Medicaid program, known as Medi-Cal, which is responsible for delivery of medical care to an unusually large population of(More)
This study documents the drug therapy patterns and 1-year treatment costs for 18,833 Medicaid patients with schizophrenia treated with conventional antipsychotic medications in Michigan, Kentucky, Alabama, and Georgia. One in four patients used no antipsychotic, but had total costs that were less than for treated patients (-$2,576, p < .0001); 18 percent of(More)
We utilize data from a large, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of treatment for schizophrenia to compare the effect of therapy with the second generation antipsychotic olanzapine versus therapy with the conventional agent haloperidol on the perceived functioning and well-being of patients over 1 year as measured by the Medical Outcome Study Short(More)