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Previous methods of analyzing the substance of political attention have had to make several restrictive assumptions or been prohibitively costly when applied to large-scale political texts. Here, we describe a topic model for legislative speech, a statistical learning model that uses word choices to infer topical categories covered in a set of speeches and(More)
We develop a more general theory budgetary politics and examine its implications on a new dataset on US government expenditures from 1791 to 2010. We draw on three major approaches to budgeting: the decision-making theories, primarily incrementalism, and serial processing; the policy process models, basically extensions of punctuated equilibrium; and path(More)
This paper investigates interactions between user expertise and formats of instructional presentations. A cognitive load approach assumes that information presentation should be structured to eliminate any avoidable load on working memory. The level of learner expertise is a major factor determining intelligibility of information for a user. A diagram might(More)
The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors who are responsible for the facts and the accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect the official views or policies of the State of California. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation. and INVERS for their generous contributions(More)
PURPOSE Targeted inhibition of Müller cell (MC)-produced VEGF or broad inhibition of VEGF with an intravitreal anti-VEGF antibody reduces intravitreal neovascularization in a rat model of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). In this study, we compared the effects of these two approaches on retinal vascular development and capillary density in the inner and(More)
Extreme heat events are likely to become more frequent in the coming decades owing to climate change 1,2. Exposure to extreme heat depends not only on changing climate, but also on changes in the size and spatial distribution of the human population. Here we provide a new projection of population exposure to extreme heat for the continental United States(More)