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In humans, low peak bone mass is a significant risk factor for osteoporosis. We report that LRP5, encoding the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5, affects bone mass accrual during growth. Mutations in LRP5 cause the autosomal recessive disorder osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome (OPPG). We find that OPPG carriers have reduced bone mass when(More)
CHARGE association is a nonrandom pattern of congenital anomalies that occurs together more frequently than one would expect on the basis of chance. This common multiple anomaly condition has an estimated prevalence of 1:10,000. The number of children diagnosed with CHARGE association is increasing, owing presumably to greater awareness of this condition(More)
Noonan syndrome (NS) is a common, clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by distinctive facial features, short stature, chest deformity, congenital heart disease, and other comorbidities. Gene mutations identified in individuals with the NS phenotype are involved in the Ras/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signal(More)
We report on the prevalence of mutations in the zinc finger transcription factor gene, ZIC2, in a group of 509 unrelated individuals with isolated holoprosencephaly (HPE) and normal chromosomes. Overall, we encountered 16 HPE patients (from 15 unrelated families) with ZIC2 mutations. Thus, ZIC2 mutation was the apparent cause of HPE in 3-4% of cases. Seven(More)
Campomelic dysplasia is a distinct entity that should not be confused with other conditions associated with congenital bowing of the long bones. Evidence suggests that some affected males have female external genitalia, and vagina, uterus, and fallopian tubes. Examination of a newly reported sibling pair has increased support for autosomal recessive(More)
The gene predisposing to neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) on human chromosome 22 has revealed a wide variety of different mutations in NF2 individuals. These patients display a marked variability in clinical presentation, ranging from very severe disease with numerous tumors at a young age to a relatively mild condition much later in life. To investigate(More)
Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NBS) is characterized by sparse hair, distinctive facial morphology, distal-limb anomalies and intellectual disability. We sequenced the exomes of ten individuals with NBS and identified heterozygous variants in SMARCA2 in eight of them. Extended molecular screening identified nonsynonymous SMARCA2 mutations in 36 of 44(More)
Seventeen unrelated patients with multiple anomalies of unknown etiology were identified by the presence of choanal atresia. A regularly recurring pattern of associated features involving mental retardation, postnatal growth deficiency, hypogenitalism (males), small ears, cardiac defects, micrognathia, postnatal microcephaly, and ocular coloboma was(More)
Older paternal age has previously been documented as a factor in sporadic fresh mutational cases of several autosomal dominant disorders. In this collaborative study, an older mean paternal age has been documented in sporadic cases of at least five additional dominantly inheritable disorders; the basal cell nevus syndrome, the Waardenburg syndrome, the(More)