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We have identified Klp2p, a new kinesin-like protein (KLP) of the KAR3 subfamily in fission yeast. The motor domain of this protein is 61% identical and 71% similar to Pkl1p, another fission yeast KAR3 protein, yet the two enzymes are different in behavior and function. Pkl1p is nuclear throughout the cell cycle, whereas Klp2p is cytoplasmic during(More)
Antigen-specificity is a hallmark of adaptive T cell-mediated immune responses. CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (T(R)) also require activation through the T cell receptor for function. Although these cells require antigen-specific activation, they are generally able to suppress bystander T cell responses once activated. This raises the possibility that(More)
CD8+ T cell tolerance to self-proteins prevents autoimmunity but represents an obstacle to generating T cell responses to tumor-associated antigens. We have made a T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mouse specific for a tumor antigen and crossed TCR-TG mice to transgenic mice expressing the tumor antigen in hepatocytes (gag-TG). TCRxgag mice showed no signs(More)
Major histocompatibility complex class II tetramer staining and activation analysis identified 2 distinct types of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood of humans with type 1 (autoimmune) diabetes. T cells with low-avidity recognition of peptide-MHC ligands had low sensitivity to activation and inefficient activation-induced apoptosis. In(More)
CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells are crucial to the maintenance of tolerance in normal individuals. However, the factors regulating this cell population and its function are largely unknown. Estrogen has been shown to protect against the development of autoimmune disease, yet the mechanism is not known. We demonstrate that estrogen (17-beta-estradiol, E2)(More)
Adaptive regulatory T cells that develop from naive CD4 cells in response to exposure to Ag can act as immunotherapeutic agents to control immune responses. We show that effectors generated from murine islet-specific CD4 cells by TCR stimulation with IL-2 and TGF-beta1 have potent suppressive activity. They prevent spontaneous development of type 1 diabetes(More)
Dominant tolerance to autoantigens is primarily achieved through the action of the CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) subset of T cells, which have the capability of suppressing autoreactive T cells that have escaped deletion during thymic selection. The essential role of the forkhead/winged-helix transcription factor Foxp3 in the development and function of these cells(More)
FoxP3 recently entered the spotlight as a critical component of regulatory T cell development and function. Several groups are presently engaged in an effort to uncover the mechanistic details of its contribution to this critical T cell subset. Despite this, the mechanism of FoxP3-mediated transcriptional repression and the affected target genes are still(More)
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