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While a potential causal factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD), brain insulin resistance has not been demonstrated directly in that disorder. We provide such a demonstration here by showing that the hippocampal formation (HF) and, to a lesser degree, the cerebellar cortex in AD cases without diabetes exhibit markedly reduced responses to insulin signaling in(More)
Functional chemokine receptors and chemokines are expressed by glial cells within the CNS, though relatively little is known about the patterns of neuronal chemokine receptor expression and function. We developed monoclonal antibodies to the CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR6, CXCR2, CXCR3 and CXCR4 chemokine receptors to study their expression in human fetal neurons(More)
Ethylene glycol poisoning is an important toxicological problem in medical practice because early diagnosis and treatment can prevent considerable morbidity and mortality. When ingested in the form of antifreeze or other automotive products, ethylene glycol results in central nervous system depression, cardiopulmonary compromise, and renal insufficiency.(More)
The Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes complex processing resulting in the production of a 4-kDa amyloid peptide (A beta) which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies have shown that cells can secrete carboxyl terminus truncated APP derivatives (APP-S) in response to physiological stimulus. We have(More)
Rapamycin (sirolimus) is a macrolide fungicide with immunosuppressant properties that is used in human islet transplantation. Little is known about the effects of rapamycin on MIN-6 cells and islets. Rapamycin had a dose-dependent, time-dependent, and glucose-independent deleterious effect on MIN-6 cell viability. At day 1, using the MTT method, 0.01 nmol/l(More)
Ca2+ channel expression and regulation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis were studied during retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of the human teratocarcinoma cell line Ntera 2/C1.D1 (NT2- cells) into NT2N neurons, a unique model of human neurons in culture. The cytosolic Ca2+ level of undifferentiated NT2- cells was low (75 +/- 5 nM) and stable under(More)
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) can be cleaved by a beta-secretase to generate a beta-amyloid peptide, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. However, APP can also be cleaved by an alpha-secretase to form a non-amyloidogenic secreted form of APP (APP-S). APP-S secretion can be physiologically regulated. This study examined(More)
Culturing rat islets in high glucose (HG) increased 1-14 C-␣-ketoisocaproate (KIC) oxidation compared with culturing them in low glucose. Leucine caused insulin secretion (IS) in low glucose but not in HG rat islets, whereas KIC did so in both. Pretreatment with HG for 40 min abolished leucine stimulation of IS by mouse islets and prevented the cytosolic Ca(More)
There is substantial evidence that G-protein-associated signaling pathways in the brain are altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using quantitative immunoblotting we find a significant decrease in Galphai levels in every AD case examined compared to controls (mean Galphai level in AD was 43.5+/-7.4% of control). Galphao levels were slightly decreased, but(More)
A frontal variant of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has recently been identified on neuropathological and neuropsychological grounds (Johnson, J.K., Head, E., Kim, R., Starr, A., Cotman, C.W., 1999. Clinical and pathological evidence for a frontal variant of Alzheimer Disease. Arch. Neurol. 56, 1233-1239). Frontal AD differs strikingly from typical AD by the(More)