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Microbial activities shape the biogeochemistry of the planet and macroorganism health. Determining the metabolic processes performed by microbes is important both for understanding and for manipulating ecosystems (for example, disruption of key processes that lead to disease, conservation of environmental services, and so on). Describing microbial function(More)
The complex microbiome of the rumen functions as an effective system for the conversion of plant cell wall biomass to microbial protein, short chain fatty acids, and gases. As such, it provides a unique genetic resource for plant cell wall degrading microbial enzymes that could be used in the production of biofuels. The rumen and gastrointestinal tract(More)
The microbiota of the mammalian intestine depend largely on dietary polysaccharides as energy sources. Most of these polymers are not degradable by the host, but herbivores can derive 70% of their energy intake from microbial breakdown--a classic example of mutualism. Moreover, dietary polysaccharides that reach the human large intestine have a major impact(More)
BACKGROUND The complex microbiome of the ceca of chickens plays an important role in nutrient utilization, growth and well-being of these animals. Since we have a very limited understanding of the capabilities of most species present in the cecum, we investigated the role of the microbiome by comparative analyses of both the microbial community structure(More)
The Prevotellas comprise a diverse group of bacteria that has received surprisingly limited attention at the whole genome-sequencing level. In this communication, we present the comparative analysis of the genomes of Prevotella ruminicola 23 (GenBank: CP002006) and Prevotella bryantii B(1)4 (GenBank: ADWO00000000), two gastrointestinal isolates. Both P.(More)
BACKGROUND Dogs suffer from many of the same maladies as humans that may be affected by the gut microbiome, but knowledge of the canine microbiome is incomplete. This work aimed to use 16S rDNA tag pyrosequencing to phylogenetically characterize hindgut microbiome in dogs and determine how consumption of dietary fiber affects community structure. (More)
Ruminants are completely dependent on their microbiota for feed digestion and consequently, their viability. It is therefore tempting to hypothesize a connection between the composition and abundance of resident rumen bacterial taxa and the physiological parameters of the host. Using a pyrosequencing approach, we characterized the rumen bacterial community(More)
The bacterial composition of the human fecal microbiome is influenced by many lifestyle factors, notably diet. It is less clear, however, what role host genetics plays in dictating the composition of bacteria living in the gut. In this study, we examined the association of ~200K host genotypes with the relative abundance of fecal bacterial taxa in a founder(More)
BACKGROUND Ruminococcus flavefaciens is a predominant cellulolytic rumen bacterium, which forms a multi-enzyme cellulosome complex that could play an integral role in the ability of this bacterium to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides. Identifying the major enzyme types involved in plant cell wall degradation is essential for gaining a better(More)
The importance of bacteria in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals is widely acknowledged as important. However, very little is known about composition and distribution of the microbial population in lower intestinal tracts of animals. Because most bacterial species in pig intestines have not been cultured, it has been difficult to analyze bacterial(More)