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Generation of center-surround antagonistic receptive fields in the outer retina occurs via inhibitory feedback modulation of presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channels in cone photoreceptor synaptic terminals. Both conventional and unconventional neurotransmitters, as well as an ephaptic effect, have been proposed, but the intercellular messaging that(More)
The origins of fear of spiders was investigated in 33 spider phobic Ss entering a treatment study. All Ss completed Menzies and Clarke's (1993a) Origins Questionnaire (OQ) (Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 355-365) and Ost and Hugdahl's (1981) Phobic Origins Questionnaire (POQ) (Behaviour Research and Therapy, 19, 439-447). The results for the individual(More)
Neuronal communication imposes a heavy metabolic burden in maintaining ionic gradients essential for action potential firing and synaptic signalling. Although cellular metabolism is known to regulate excitatory neurotransmission, it is still unclear whether the brain's energy supply affects inhibitory signalling. Here we show that mitochondrial-derived(More)
Desensitization is an important mechanism curtailing the activity of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs). Although the structural basis of desensitization is not fully resolved, it is thought to be governed by physicochemical properties of bound ligands. Here, we show the importance of an allosteric cation-binding pocket in controlling transitions between(More)
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are the major excitatory neurotransmitter receptor in the vertebrate CNS and, as a result, their activation properties lie at the heart of much of the neuronal network activity observed in the developing and adult brain. iGluRs have also been implicated in many nervous system disorders associated with postnatal(More)
Kainate-selective ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) fulfil key roles in the CNS, making them the subject of detailed structural and functional analyses. Although they are known to gate a channel pore with high and low ion-permeation rates, it is still not clear how switches between these gating modes are achieved at the structural level. Here, we(More)
Differential responses on cognitive function of young (18-45 years, n = 17) and elderly (60-75 years, n = 9) subjects were compared before and after a challenge with lorazepam (2 mg oral) or placebo. Tests of memory and frontal lobe function were administered to determine the specificity of the amnesic deficit produced and the interaction of drug and the(More)
D-Serine is an important signaling molecule throughout the central nervous system, acting as an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor coagonist. This study investigated the D-serine modulation of non-NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptors expressed by inner retinal neurons. We first identified that the degradation of endogenous retinal D-serine, by application(More)
NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation is enhanced by d-serine or glycine acting at a specific binding site. Previous work has shown d-serine enhancement of NMDAR currents in retinal ganglion cells. One of the major functions of most NMDA channels is to permit calcium influx into cells. We show that d-serine enhances glutamate-induced calcium responses in(More)
As in many CNS neurons, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) receive fast synaptic activation through postsynaptic ionotropic receptors. However, the potential role of postsynaptic group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in these neurons is unknown. In this study we first demonstrated that the selective group I mGluR agonist(More)