Bruno Schuler

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We show that the different bond orders of individual carbon-carbon bonds in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fullerenes can be distinguished by noncontact atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a carbon monoxide (CO)-functionalized tip. We found two different contrast mechanisms, which were corroborated by density functional theory calculations: The greater(More)
The Bergman cyclization is one of the most fascinating rearrangements in chemistry, with important implications in organic synthesis and pharmacology. Here we demonstrate a reversible Bergman cyclization for the first time. We induced the on-surface transformation of an individual aromatic diradical into a highly strained ten-membered diyne using atomic(More)
Reactive intermediates are involved in many chemical transformations. However, their characterization is a great challenge because of their short lifetimes and high reactivities. Arynes, formally derived from arenes by the removal of two hydrogen atoms from adjacent carbon atoms, are prominent reactive intermediates that have been hypothesized for more than(More)
Petroleum is one of the most precious and complex molecular mixtures existing. Because of its chemical complexity, the solid component of crude oil, the asphaltenes, poses an exceptional challenge for structure analysis, with tremendous economic relevance. Here, we combine atomic-resolution imaging using atomic force microscopy and molecular orbital imaging(More)
The underlying mechanisms of image distortions in atomic force microscopy (AFM) with CO-terminated tips are identified and studied in detail. AFM measurements of a partially fluorinated hydrocarbon molecule recorded with a CO-terminated tip are compared with state-of-the-art ab initio calculations. The hydrogenated and fluorinated carbon rings in the(More)
We report the contrast formation in the local contact potential difference (LCPD) measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on single charge-transfer complexes (CTCs) on a NaCl bilayer on Cu(111). At different tip heights, we found quantitatively different LCPD contrasts that characterize different properties of the molecule. In the small distance(More)
Microfluidic mixing devices are increasingly popular tools for probing the non-equilibrium dynamics of biomolecular systems. Commonly, hydrodynamic focusing is used to reduce the length scales that limit the time of diffusive mixing in the laminar flow regime, such that even sub-millisecond dead times for triggering a reaction have been achieved. Detection(More)