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Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) causes the corticospinal system to become refractory to subsequent stimuli for up to 200 ms. We examined the phenomenon of paired pulse inhibition with TMS under conditions of rest, ongoing voluntary activation (isometric force generation), and at variable delays following activation (postactivation) of the wrist(More)
We studied the effects of exercise on motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electrical stimulation (TES). Subjects performed 30-second periods of isometric exercise of the extensor carpi radialis until fatigue, which was defined as the inability to maintain half maximum force. The amplitude of MEPs to TMS(More)
We studied in humans the effects of transcranial stimulation of cortical motor areas on the execution of single and sequential rapid arm movements. In a reaction time paradigm with an auditory “go” signal, stimulation given after an auditory tone and before the start of movements delayed the onset but did not affect the subsequent performance of single or(More)
To assess the excitability of the motor system, we studied 11 patients with task-specific dystonia and 11 age-matched normal subjects. The dominant side was affected in nine of the patients. We delivered transcranial magnetic stimuli at different stimulus intensities and with different levels of muscle facilitation to the side contralateral to the side of(More)
Twenty patients with hemiplegia and 13 patients with motor neurone disease were studied with electrical and magnetic transcranial stimulation. Motor evoked potentials were recorded from the biceps, thenar and tibialis anterior muscles. In both groups of patients magnetic stimulation with a Novametrix stimulator revealed fewer abnormalities than electrical(More)
We studied the effects of exercise on motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in 18 normal (control) subjects, 12 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, and 10 depressed patients. Subjects performed repeated sets of isometric exercise of the extensor carpi radialis muscle until they were unable to maintain half(More)
F-waves are known to be highly sensitive to changes in the excitatory state of the spinal cord. This paper describes the effects of subthreshold transcranial magnetic stimulation on the F-waves evoked in hand and foot muscles. In the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, the F-wave was significantly enhanced when the cortical stimulus was given with a delay(More)
The cortical projections to neck muscle motoneurons were studied in normal subjects by electrical and magnetic transcranial brain stimulation. After magnetic stimulation with a large coil, motor evoked potentials were present in about 20% of relaxed and 100% of contracting neck muscles. The latency of these responses was short: about 7 ms in the(More)
INTRODUCTION Distal myopathies are currently regarded as a non-homogeneous group of disorders including different autosomal dominant, recessive and sporadic forms. MATERIAL AND METHODS The cases of a mother and her son and daughter are described and compared to previously reported cases from 4 families. Despite minor differences, the clinical picture is(More)
Limited phenotypic variability has been reported in patients with Bartter syndrome type I, with mutations in the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter gene (BSC). The diagnosis of this hereditary renal tubular disorder is usually made in the antenatal-neonatal period, due to the presence of polyhydramnios, premature delivery, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis,(More)