Bruno Marchand

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The rapid replication of HIV-1 and the errors made during viral replication cause the virus to evolve rapidly in patients, making the problems of vaccine development and drug therapy particularly challenging. In the absence of an effective vaccine, drugs are the only useful treatment. Anti-HIV drugs work; so far drug therapy has saved more than three(More)
Retroviral resistance to AZT and 3TC has been associated with two different mechanisms. The M184V mutation in the reverse transcriptase (RT) of the human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) diminishes the incorporation of 3TC-monophosphate (3TC-MP), whereas AZT resistance-conferring mutations were shown to facilitate the phosphorolytic excision of(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) catalyzes synthesis of integration-competent, double-stranded DNA from the single-stranded viral RNA genome, combining both polymerizing and hydrolytic functions to synthesize approximately 20,000 phosphodiester bonds. Despite a wealth of biochemical studies, the manner whereby the enzyme(More)
A detailed understanding of how aptamers recognize biological binding partners is of considerable importance in the development of oligonucleotide therapeutics. For antiviral nucleic acid aptamers, current models predict a correlation between broad-spectrum inhibition of viral proteins and suppression of emerging viral resistance, but there is little(More)
The non-structural protein 13 (nsp13) of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is a helicase that separates double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or DNA (dsDNA) with a 5' → 3' polarity, using the energy of nucleotide hydrolysis. We determined the minimal mechanism of helicase function by nsp13. We showed a clear unwinding lag with increasing length(More)
The L74V and M184V mutations in the reverse transcriptase (RT) gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are frequently associated with resistance to the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors abacavir, didanosine, and lamivudine. Yet viruses containing any of these mutations often display hypersusceptibility to zidovudine (ZDV). Two distinct(More)
The N348I mutation at the connection subdomain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) confers clinically significant resistance to both nucleoside and non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs) by mechanisms that are not well understood. We used transient kinetics to characterize the enzymatic properties of N348I RT and determine the biochemical mechanism of(More)
BACKGROUND Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) is a picornavirus that infects cloven-hoofed animals and leads to severe losses in livestock production. In the case of an FMD outbreak, emergency vaccination requires at least 7 days to trigger an effective immune response. There are currently no approved inhibitors for the treatment or prevention of FMDV(More)
The emergence of drug resistance-conferring mutations can severely compromise the success of chemotherapy directed against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The M184V and/or L74V mutation in the reverse transcriptase (RT) gene are frequently found in viral isolates from patients treated with the nucleoside RT inhibitors lamivudine (3TC), abacavir(More)
4'-Ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) is a nucleoside analog that, unlike approved anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, has a 3'-OH and exhibits remarkable potency against wild-type and drug-resistant HIVs. EFdA triphosphate (EFdA-TP) is unique among nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors(More)