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Complex interactions between the host and the gut microbiota govern intestinal homeostasis but remain poorly understood. Here we reveal a relationship between gut microbiota and caspase recruitment domain family member 9 (CARD9), a susceptibility gene for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that functions in the immune response against microorganisms. CARD9(More)
The prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) has been steadily increasing since 1960. They are widespread throughout Europe, North America, China, and Japan and are emerging as a global disease. The equilibrium among epithelial cells, the immune system, and the related microbiota seems to be paramount in ensuring the absence of these IBD. The role of(More)
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (Ido1) is a rate-limiting enzyme that catalizes the degradation of tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway. Here, we show that Ido1 activity sustains an immunostimulatory potential through inhibition of interleukin (Il)10. In atherosclerosis, Ido1-dependent inhibition of Il10 translates into disease exacerbation. The resistance(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Oily fish is a good source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Since these fatty acids may change efficiency of amino acid (AA) absorption, we determined whether increased salmon consumption influences plasma AA concentrations in pregnant women and their newborns. METHODS Pregnant women were randomly allocated to remain on(More)
Studying host-microbiota interactions are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms involved in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation. In this work, we analyzed these interactions in mice that were mono-associated with six microorganisms that are representative of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated dysbiosis: the bacteria Bacteroides(More)
L-Arginine (L-Arg) availability is crucial in the regulation of immune response. Indeed, L-Arg deficiency induces T-cell dysfunction and could modulate the properties of natural killer (NK) cells involved in the early host defense against infections and tumors. We explored the impact of L-Arg depletion on NK cell functions using two models - an NK-92 cell(More)
Leptin, a hormone-cytokine produced primarily in the adipose tissue, has pleiotropic effects on many biological systems and in several cell types, including immune cells. Hyperleptinemia is associated with immune dysfunction and carcinogenesis. Natural killer (NK) cells are critical mediators of anti-tumor immunity, and leptin receptor deficiency in mice(More)
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and adipokines have been implicated in breast cancer. This study investigated a possible link between COX-2 and adipokines in the development of mammary tumors. A model of environmental enrichment (EE), known to reduce tumor growth was used for a syngeneic murine model of mammary carcinoma. 3-week-old, female C57BL/6 mice were(More)
High-calorie (HC) diet contributes to the increased incidence of obesity, which is a risk factor for breast cancer in postmenopausal women, and in particular for estrogen receptor (ER) positive tumors. This study investigated whether an HC diet increases human ER-positive breast cancer progression and modulates natural killer (NK) cell functions.(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Gut microbiota is involved in many physiological functions and its imbalance is associated with several diseases, particularly with inflammatory bowel diseases. Mucosa-associated microbiota could have a key role in induction of host immunity and in inflammatory process. Although the role of fungi has been suggested in inflammatory(More)