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We assessed the speed of the ventilatory response to square-wave changes in alveolar P(CO2) and the relative gains of the steady-state ventilatory response to CO2 of the central chemoreceptors vs. the carotid body chemoreceptors in intact, unanesthetized dogs. We used extracorporeal perfusion of the reversibly isolated carotid sinus to maintain normal tonic(More)
The aim of this study was to identify some of the mechanisms that could be involved in blunted ventilatory response (VE) to exercise in the supine (S) position. The contribution of the recruitment of different muscle groups, the activity of the cardiac mechanoreceptors, the level of arterial baroreceptor stimulation, and the hemodynamic effects of gravity(More)
This review examines the evidence that skeletal muscles can sense the status of the peripheral vascular network through group III and IV muscle afferent fibers. The anatomic and neurophysiological basis for such a mechanism is the following: 1) a significant portion of group III and IV afferent fibers have been found in the vicinity and the adventitia of(More)
This study addresses the following question: does the ventilatory control system adjust total ventilation in accord with the regulatory demands of the physiological dead space ventilation (VD) when the breathing frequency changes, and if so, how? A simple proportionality between the amplitude of the respiratory motor output (VT) and the respiratory period(More)
This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the frequency response of the systems controlling the motor activity of breathing and walking in quadrupeds is compatible with the idea that supra-spinal locomotor centres could proportionally drive locomotion and ventilation. The locomotor and the breath-by-breath ventilatory and gas exchange (CO2 output(More)
The sites and forms of interactions between voluntary breathing acts and automatic respiratory rhythm generation are the subject of considerable research interest. We report here observations of the control of breathing in a patient suffering from an advanced form of progressive supranuclear palsy (Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome). This patient(More)
BACKGROUND Acute hydrogen sulfide (H2S) poisoning produces a coma, the outcome of which ranges from full recovery to severe neurological deficits. The aim of our study was to 1--describe the immediate and long-term neurological effects following H2S-induced coma in un-anesthetized rats, and 2--determine the potential benefit of methylene blue (MB), a(More)
On the basis of studies performed in mice that showed H(2)S inhalation decreasing dramatically the metabolic rate, H(2)S was proposed as a means of protecting vital organs from traumatic or ischemic episodes in humans. Hypoxia has in fact also long been shown to induce hypometabolism. However, this effect is observed solely in small-sized animals with high(More)
The relative importance of peripheral vs. central chemoreceptors in causing apnea/unstable breathing during sleep is unresolved. This has never been tested in an unanesthetized preparation with intact carotid bodies. We studied three unanesthetized dogs during normal sleep in a preparation in which intact carotid body chemoreceptors could be reversibly(More)
The 'cough center' can be tuned by various afferent inputs, suggesting possible interactions at a central level of neural pathways originating from distant anatomical sites. The present study was designed to determine whether brief mechanical stimulation of the trachea can trigger cough during apnea elicited by nasal instillation of water. Twelve(More)