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We assessed the speed of the ventilatory response to square-wave changes in alveolar P(CO2) and the relative gains of the steady-state ventilatory response to CO2 of the central chemoreceptors vs. the carotid body chemoreceptors in intact, unanesthetized dogs. We used extracorporeal perfusion of the reversibly isolated carotid sinus to maintain normal tonic(More)
The aim of this study was to identify some of the mechanisms that could be involved in blunted ventilatory response (VE) to exercise in the supine (S) position. The contribution of the recruitment of different muscle groups, the activity of the cardiac mechanoreceptors, the level of arterial baroreceptor stimulation, and the hemodynamic effects of gravity(More)
Periodic breathing is commonly observed in chronic heart failure (CHF) when pulmonary capillary wedge pressure is abnormally high and there is usually concomitant tachypneic hyperventilation. We hypothesized that acute pulmonary hypertension at pressures encountered in CHF and involving all of the lungs and pulmonary vessels would predispose to(More)
This review examines the evidence that skeletal muscles can sense the status of the peripheral vascular network through group III and IV muscle afferent fibers. The anatomic and neurophysiological basis for such a mechanism is the following: 1) a significant portion of group III and IV afferent fibers have been found in the vicinity and the adventitia of(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the possible association (pathophysiologic and clinical features) between exertional heat stroke (EHS) and malignant hyperthermia (MH). BACKGROUND Both EHS and MH are acute and life-threatening disorders. It has repeatedly been shown that EHS can occur in well-trained patients with known MH-associated mutation in the RYR1 gene in the(More)
An important determinant of [H(+)] in the environment of the central chemoreceptors is cerebral blood flow. Accordingly we hypothesized that a reduction of brain perfusion or a reduced cerebrovascular reactivity to CO(2) would lead to hyperventilation and an increased ventilatory responsiveness to CO(2). We used oral indomethacin to reduce the(More)
Sleep unmasks a highly sensitive hypocapnia-induced apnoeic threshold, whereby apnoea is initiated by small transient reductions in arterial CO(2) pressure (P(aCO(2))) below eupnoea and respiratory rhythm is not restored until P(aCO(2)) has risen significantly above eupnoeic levels. We propose that the 'CO(2) reserve' (i.e. the difference in P(aCO(2))(More)
On the basis of studies performed in mice that showed H(2)S inhalation decreasing dramatically the metabolic rate, H(2)S was proposed as a means of protecting vital organs from traumatic or ischemic episodes in humans. Hypoxia has in fact also long been shown to induce hypometabolism. However, this effect is observed solely in small-sized animals with high(More)
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S), a chemical hazard in oil and gas production, has recently become a dreadful method of suicide, posing specific risks and challenges for the first responders. Currently, there is no proven effective treatment against H2S poisoning and its severe neurological, respiratory or cardiac after-effects. We have recently described that H2S(More)
The ventilatory response to electrically induced rhythmic muscle contractions (ERCs) was studied in six urethane-chloralose-anaesthetized sheep, while arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide pressure (P(a,O(2)) and P(a,CO2)) and perfusion pressure were maintained constant at the known chemoreception sites. With cephalic P(a,CO2) held constant, the response to(More)