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Shiga toxin and other toxins of this family can escape the endocytic pathway and reach the Golgi apparatus. To synchronize endosome to Golgi transport, Shiga toxin B-fragment was internalized into HeLa cells at low temperatures. Under these conditions, the protein partitioned away from markers destined for the late endocytic pathway and colocalized(More)
The molecular mechanisms underlying early/recycling endosomes-to-TGN transport are still not understood. We identified interactions between the TGN-localized putative t-SNAREs syntaxin 6, syntaxin 16, and Vti1a, and two early/recycling endosomal v-SNAREs, VAMP3/cellubrevin, and VAMP4. Using a novel permeabilized cell system, these proteins were functionally(More)
SEC4, one of the 10 genes involved in the final stage of the yeast secretory pathway, encodes a ras-like, GTP-binding protein. In wild-type cells, Sec4 protein is located on the cytoplasmic face of both the plasma membrane and the secretory vesicles in transit to the cell surface. In all post-Golgi blocked sec mutants, Sec4p is predominantly associated with(More)
Several GTPases of the Rab family, known to be regulators of membrane traffic between organelles, have been described and localized to various intracellular compartments. Rab11 has previously been reported to be associated with the pericentriolar recycling compartment, post-Golgi vesicles, and the trans-Golgi network (TGN). We compared the effect of(More)
Rab guanosine triphosphatases regulate vesicular transport and membrane traffic within eukaryotic cells. Here, a kinesin-like protein that interacts with guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound forms of Rab6 was identified. This protein, termed Rabkinesin-6, was localized to the Golgi apparatus and shown to play a role in the dynamics of this organelle. The(More)
Eukaryotic cells seem to use GTP hydrolysis to regulate vesicular traffic in exocytosis and endocytosis. The best evidence for this comes from studies on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that have identified two small Ras-related GTP-binding proteins, Sec4p and Ypt1p, which control distinct stages of the secretory pathway. In mammalian cells the effects(More)
Trafficking between membrane compartments is a characteristic of eukaryotic cells and relies on transport carriers that bud and fission from a donor membrane, before being transported and fusing with the correct acceptor compartment. Rab GTPases ensure specificity and directionality of trafficking steps by regulating the movement of transport carriers along(More)
The carboxyl-terminal Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL), or a closely-related sequence, is important for ER localization of both lumenal as well as type II membrane proteins. This sequence functions as a retrieval signal at post-ER compartment(s), but the exact compartment(s) where the retrieval occurs remains unresolved. With an affinity-purified antibody against the(More)
rab4 is a ras-like GTP-binding protein that associates with early endosomes in a cell cycle-dependent fashion. To determine its role during endocytosis, we generated stable cell lines that overexpressed mutant or wild-type rab4. By measuring endocytosis, transport to lysosomes, and recycling, we found that overexpression of wild-type rab4 had differential(More)
Rab6 is a ubiquitous ras-like GTP-binding protein associated with the membranes of the Golgi complex (Goud, B., A. Zahraoui, A. Tavitian, and J. Saraste. 1990. Nature (Lond.). 345:553-556; Antony, C., C. Cibert, G. Géraud, A. Santa Maria, B. Maro, V. Mayau, and B. Goud. 1992. J. Cell Sci. 103: 785-796). We have transiently overexpressed in mouse L cells and(More)