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The molecular mechanisms underlying early/recycling endosomes-to-TGN transport are still not understood. We identified interactions between the TGN-localized putative t-SNAREs syntaxin 6, syntaxin 16, and Vti1a, and two early/recycling endosomal v-SNAREs, VAMP3/cellubrevin, and VAMP4. Using a novel permeabilized cell system, these proteins were functionally(More)
rab4 is a ras-like GTP-binding protein that associates with early endosomes in a cell cycle-dependent fashion. To determine its role during endocytosis, we generated stable cell lines that overexpressed mutant or wild-type rab4. By measuring endocytosis, transport to lysosomes, and recycling, we found that overexpression of wild-type rab4 had differential(More)
SEC4, one of the 10 genes involved in the final stage of the yeast secretory pathway, encodes a ras-like, GTP-binding protein. In wild-type cells, Sec4 protein is located on the cytoplasmic face of both the plasma membrane and the secretory vesicles in transit to the cell surface. In all post-Golgi blocked sec mutants, Sec4p is predominantly associated with(More)
rab6 is a ubiquitous ras-like GTPase involved in intra-Golgi transport. We have studied at both morphological and biochemical levels the behavior of Golgi resident proteins in HeLa cells overexpressing wild-type rab6 and GTP- and GDP-bound mutants of rab6 (rab6 Q72L and rab6 T27N, respectively). We show that wild-type rab6 and rab6 Q72L overexpression(More)
Shiga toxin and other toxins of this family can escape the endocytic pathway and reach the Golgi apparatus. To synchronize endosome to Golgi transport, Shiga toxin B-fragment was internalized into HeLa cells at low temperatures. Under these conditions, the protein partitioned away from markers destined for the late endocytic pathway and colocalized(More)
Mutant alleles of SEC4, an essential gene required for the final stage of secretion in yeast, have been generated by in vitro mutagenesis. Deletion of the two cysteine residues at the C terminus of the protein results in a soluble non-functional protein, indicating that those two residues are required for normal localization of Sec4p to secretory vesicles(More)
We visualized a fluorescent-protein (FP) fusion to Rab6, a Golgi-associated GTPase, in conjunction with fluorescent secretory pathway markers. FP-Rab6 defined highly dynamic transport carriers (TCs) translocating from the Golgi to the cell periphery. FP-Rab6 TCs specifically accumulated a retrograde cargo, the wild-type Shiga toxin B-fragment (STB), during(More)
The cytosolic coat-protein complex COP-I interacts with cytoplasmic 'retrieval' signals present in membrane proteins that cycle between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi complex, and is required for both anterograde and retrograde transport in the secretory pathway. Here we study the role of COP-I in Golgi-to-ER transport of several distinct(More)
The small GTPase Rab6a is involved in the regulation of membrane traffic from the Golgi apparatus towards the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a coat complex coatomer protein I (COPI)-independent pathway. Here, we used a yeast two-hybrid approach to identify binding partners of Rab6a. In particular, we identified the dynein-dynactin-binding protein Bicaudal-D1(More)
To investigate retrograde transport along the biosynthetic/secretory pathway, we have constructed a recombinant Shiga toxin B-fragment carrying an N-glycosylation site and a KDEL retrieval motif at its carboxyl terminus (B-Glyc-KDEL). After incubation with HeLa cells, B-Glyc-KDEL was progressively glycosylated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and remained(More)