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Shiga toxin and other toxins of this family can escape the endocytic pathway and reach the Golgi apparatus. To synchronize endosome to Golgi transport, Shiga toxin B-fragment was internalized into HeLa cells at low temperatures. Under these conditions, the protein partitioned away from markers destined for the late endocytic pathway and colocalized(More)
The molecular mechanisms underlying early/recycling endosomes-to-TGN transport are still not understood. We identified interactions between the TGN-localized putative t-SNAREs syntaxin 6, syntaxin 16, and Vti1a, and two early/recycling endosomal v-SNAREs, VAMP3/cellubrevin, and VAMP4. Using a novel permeabilized cell system, these proteins were functionally(More)
SEC4, one of the 10 genes involved in the final stage of the yeast secretory pathway, encodes a ras-like, GTP-binding protein. In wild-type cells, Sec4 protein is located on the cytoplasmic face of both the plasma membrane and the secretory vesicles in transit to the cell surface. In all post-Golgi blocked sec mutants, Sec4p is predominantly associated with(More)
rab4 is a ras-like GTP-binding protein that associates with early endosomes in a cell cycle-dependent fashion. To determine its role during endocytosis, we generated stable cell lines that overexpressed mutant or wild-type rab4. By measuring endocytosis, transport to lysosomes, and recycling, we found that overexpression of wild-type rab4 had differential(More)
Trafficking between membrane compartments is a characteristic of eukaryotic cells and relies on transport carriers that bud and fission from a donor membrane, before being transported and fusing with the correct acceptor compartment. Rab GTPases ensure specificity and directionality of trafficking steps by regulating the movement of transport carriers along(More)
Rab6 is a ubiquitous ras-like GTP-binding protein associated with the membranes of the Golgi complex (Goud, B., A. Zahraoui, A. Tavitian, and J. Saraste. 1990. Nature (Lond.). 345:553-556; Antony, C., C. Cibert, G. Géraud, A. Santa Maria, B. Maro, V. Mayau, and B. Goud. 1992. J. Cell Sci. 103: 785-796). We have transiently overexpressed in mouse L cells and(More)
Using polyclonal antibodies raised against clathrin, we have developed an enzyme-linked immunoassay that can specifically measure the quantity of clathrin in crude cell extracts. We found that the quantity (weight percent of total protein) of clathrin was similar in cell types that exhibit large differences in their levels of endocytosis and exocytosis(More)
The carboxyl-terminal Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL), or a closely-related sequence, is important for ER localization of both lumenal as well as type II membrane proteins. This sequence functions as a retrieval signal at post-ER compartment(s), but the exact compartment(s) where the retrieval occurs remains unresolved. With an affinity-purified antibody against the(More)
The Drosophila (fruit fly) model system has been instrumental in our current understanding of human biology, development, and diseases. Here, we used a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid (Y2H)-based technology to screen 102 bait proteins from Drosophila melanogaster, most of them orthologous to human cancer-related and/or signaling proteins, against(More)
We visualized a fluorescent-protein (FP) fusion to Rab6, a Golgi-associated GTPase, in conjunction with fluorescent secretory pathway markers. FP-Rab6 defined highly dynamic transport carriers (TCs) translocating from the Golgi to the cell periphery. FP-Rab6 TCs specifically accumulated a retrograde cargo, the wild-type Shiga toxin B-fragment (STB), during(More)