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Disruption of the mouse dopamine transporter gene results in spontaneous hyperlocomotion despite major adaptive changes, such as decreases in neurotransmitter and receptor levels. In homozygote mice, dopamine persists at least 100 times longer in the extracellular space, explaining the biochemical basis of the hyperdopaminergic phenotype and demonstrating(More)
Many studies have supported a genetic etiology for autism. Here we report mutations in two X-linked genes encoding neuroligins NLGN3 and NLGN4 in siblings with autism-spectrum disorders. These mutations affect cell-adhesion molecules localized at the synapse and suggest that a defect of synaptogenesis may predispose to autism.
The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays an important role in calibrating the duration and intensity of dopamine neurotransmission in the central nervous system. We have used a strain of mice in which the gene for the DAT has been genetically deleted to identify the DAT's homeostatic role. We find that removal of the DAT dramatically prolongs the lifetime (300(More)
Before their exocytotic release during stimulation of nerve terminals, nonpeptide neurotransmitters are loaded into synaptic vesicles by specific transporters. Recently, a protein initially identified as brain-specific Na(+)-dependent inorganic phosphate transporter I (BNPI) has been shown to represent a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT1). In this(More)
Two proteins previously known as Na(+)-dependent phosphate transporters have been identified recently as vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2). Together, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are operating at most central glutamatergic synapses. In this study, we characterized a third vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT3), highly homologous to VGLUT1 and(More)
A dopamine receptor has been characterized which differs in its pharmacology and signalling system from the D1 or D2 receptor and represents both an autoreceptor and a postsynaptic receptor. The D3 receptor is localized to limbic areas of the brain, which are associated with cognitive, emotional and endocrine functions. It seems to mediate some of the(More)
We have recently identified a third subtype of glutamate vesicular transporter (VGLUT) named VGLUT3. In the present study, we provide a detailed account of the regional and cellular distributions of VGLUT3 in the rat brain, using specific nucleotide probes and antisera. The distribution of VGLUT3 protein was compared with that of the other vesicular(More)
The plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) is responsible for clearing dopamine from the synapse. Cocaine blockade of DAT leads to increased extracellular dopamine, an effect widely considered to be the primary cause of the reinforcing and addictive properties of cocaine. In this study we tested whether these properties are limited to the dopaminergic(More)
Neurotransmitter transporters determine the intensity and duration of signal transduction by controlling the rapid removal of transmitter molecules from the synaptic cleft. The importance of their function is further reflected by the medical and social implications of compounds that inhibit their activity such as the antidepressants and cocaine. Molecular(More)
We have identified 7-[3H]hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propyl-2-aminotetralin ([3H]7-OH-DPAT) as a selective probe for the recently cloned dopamine D3 receptor and used it to assess the presence of this receptor and establish its distribution and properties in brain. In transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, it binds to D3 receptors with subnanomolar affinity,(More)