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Disruption of the mouse dopamine transporter gene results in spontaneous hyperlocomotion despite major adaptive changes, such as decreases in neurotransmitter and receptor levels. In homozygote mice, dopamine persists at least 100 times longer in the extracellular space, explaining the biochemical basis of the hyperdopaminergic phenotype and demonstrating(More)
The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays an important role in calibrating the duration and intensity of dopamine neurotransmission in the central nervous system. We have used a strain of mice in which the gene for the DAT has been genetically deleted to identify the DAT's homeostatic role. We find that removal of the DAT dramatically prolongs the lifetime (300(More)
Many studies have supported a genetic etiology for autism. Here we report mutations in two X-linked genes encoding neuroligins NLGN3 and NLGN4 in siblings with autism-spectrum disorders. These mutations affect cell-adhesion molecules localized at the synapse and suggest that a defect of synaptogenesis may predispose to autism.
The plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) is responsible for clearing dopamine from the synapse. Cocaine blockade of DAT leads to increased extracellular dopamine, an effect widely considered to be the primary cause of the reinforcing and addictive properties of cocaine. In this study we tested whether these properties are limited to the dopaminergic(More)
Before their exocytotic release during stimulation of nerve terminals, nonpeptide neurotransmitters are loaded into synaptic vesicles by specific transporters. Recently, a protein initially identified as brain-specific Na(+)-dependent inorganic phosphate transporter I (BNPI) has been shown to represent a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT1). In this(More)
Two proteins previously known as Na(+)-dependent phosphate transporters have been identified recently as vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2). Together, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are operating at most central glutamatergic synapses. In this study, we characterized a third vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT3), highly homologous to VGLUT1 and(More)
A dopamine receptor has been characterized which differs in its pharmacology and signalling system from the D1 or D2 receptor and represents both an autoreceptor and a postsynaptic receptor. The D3 receptor is localized to limbic areas of the brain, which are associated with cognitive, emotional and endocrine functions. It seems to mediate some of the(More)
We have screened a human substantia nigra cDNA library with probes derived from the rat dopamine transporter. A 3.5-kilobase cDNA clone was isolated and its corresponding gene was located on the distal end of chromosome 5 (5p15.3). This human clone codes for a 620-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 68,517. Hydropathicity analysis(More)
Mice lacking the dopamine transporter (DAT-/-) are characterized by high extracellular dopamine levels and spontaneous hyperlocomotion. We performed a detailed analysis of the behavioural phenotype of DAT-/- mice in order to identify other behavioural impairments associated with the hyperdopaminergic tone of these mutant mice. In particular, we investigated(More)
RATIONALE Mice lacking the dopamine transporter (DAT(-/-)) exhibit high extracellular dopamine levels and marked hyperactivity. This hyperlocomotion is paradoxically decreased by acute administration of amphetamine-like psychostimulants, an effect that has been previously related to the activation of serotonergic neurotransmission. OBJECTIVES The goal of(More)