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An improved semi-industrial process for astaxanthin production by fermentation of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous has been developed. The culture medium was designed at the flask scale, reaching an astaxanthin cellular content of 3.0 mgg(-1) cell weight and a volumetric yield of 119 mgL(-1) broth. Astaxanthin production in flask was significantly improved by(More)
The penicillin biosynthetic genes (pcbAB, pcbC, penDE) of Penicillium chrysogenum AS-P-78 were located in a 106.5-kb DNA region that is amplified in tandem repeats (five or six copies) linked by conserved TTTACA sequences. The wild-type strains P. chrysogenum NRRL 1951 and Penicillium notatum ATCC 9478 (Fleming's isolate) contain a single copy of the(More)
The acyl coenzyme A (CoA):6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) acyltransferase of Penicillium chrysogenum AS-P-78 was purified to homogeneity, as concluded by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The enzyme is a monomer with a molecular weight of 30,000 +/- 1,000 and a pI of about 5.5. The optimal pH and(More)
Medically useful semisynthetic cephalosporins are made from 7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA) or 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA). Here we describe a new industrially amenable bioprocess for the production of the important intermediate 7-ADCA that can replace the expensive and environmentally unfriendly chemical method classically used. The(More)
The isopenicillin-N acyltransferase of Penicillium chrysogenum catalyzes the conversion of the biosynthetic intermediate isopenicillin N to the hydrophobic penicillins. The isopenicillin-N acyltransferase copurified with the acyl-CoA:6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) acyltransferase activity which transfers an acyl residue from acyl-CoA derivatives (e.g.(More)
The conversion of deacetylcephalosporin C to cephalosporin C is inefficient in most Acremonium chrysogenum strains. The cefG gene, which encodes deacetylcephalosporin C acetyltransferase, is expressed very poorly in A. chrysogenum as compared to other genes of the cephalosporin pathway. Introduction of additional copies of the cefG gene with its native(More)
The genetic organization of the left edge (tyIEDHFJ region) of the tylosin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces fradiae has been determined. Sequence analysis of a 12.9 kb region has revealed the presence of 11 ORFs, 10 of them belonging to the biosynthetic cluster. The putative functions of the proteins encoded by these genes are as follows:(More)
Penicillium chrysogenum DNA fragments cloned in EMBL3 or cosmid vectors from the upstream region of the pcbC-penDE cluster carry a gene (pcbAB) that complemented the deficiency of alpha-aminoadipyl-cysteinyl-valine synthetase of mutants npe5 and npe10, and restored penicillin production to mutant npe5. A protein of about 250 kDa was observed in sodium(More)
The isopenicillin N synthase (pcbC) and acyl-CoA:6-APA acyltransferase (penDE) genes of Penicillium chrysogenum were located in a 19.5-kb DNA fragment that had been previously cloned in phage vector EMBL3. This 19.5-kb DNA fragment was mapped with several endonucleases, and the pcbC and penDE genes were located by hybridization with probes corresponding to(More)
The single-copy pahA gene from Penicillium chrysogenum encodes a phenylacetate 2-hydroxylase that catalyzes the first step of phenylacetate catabolism, an oxidative route that decreases the precursor availability for penicillin G biosynthesis. PahA protein is homologous to cytochrome P450 monooxygenases involved in the detoxification of xenobiotic(More)