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Here we report that in staurosporine-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells, Bid, a BH3 domain containing protein, translocates from the cytosol to mitochondria. This event is associated with a change in conformation of Bax which leads to the unmasking of its NH2-terminal domain and is accompanied by the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. A similar finding(More)
Proteins of the Bcl-2 family are intracellular membrane-associated proteins that regulate programmed cell death (apoptosis) either positively or negatively by as yet unknown mechanisms. Bax, a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, was shown to form channels in lipid membranes. Bax triggered the release of liposome-encapsulated carboxyfluorescein at both(More)
During apoptosis induced by various stimuli, cytochrome c is released from mitochondria into the cytosol where it participates in caspase activation. This process has been proposed to be an irreversible consequence of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, which leads to mitochondrial swelling and rupture of the outer mitochondrial membrane.(More)
Bcl-2 family members either promote or repress programmed cell death. Bax, a death-promoting member, is a pore-forming, mitochondria-associated protein whose mechanism of action is still unknown. During apoptosis, cytochrome C is released from the mitochondria into the cytosol where it binds to APAF-1, a mammalian homologue of Ced-4, and participates in the(More)
MAP kinase phosphatase-3 (MKP-3) dephosphorylates phosphotyrosine and phosphothreonine and inactivates selectively ERK family mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. MKP-3 was activated by direct binding to purified ERK2. Activation was independent of protein kinase activity and required binding of ERK2 to the noncatalytic amino-terminus of MKP-3. Neither(More)
During apoptosis, proapoptotic factors are released from mitochondria by as yet undefined mechanisms. Patch-clamping of mitochondria and proteoliposomes formed from mitochondrial outer membranes of mammalian (FL5.12) cells has uncovered a novel ion channel whose activity correlates with onset of apoptosis. The pore diameter inferred from the largest(More)
SCG10 is a neuron-specific, membrane-associated protein that is highly concentrated in growth cones of developing neurons. Previous studies have suggested that it is a regulator of microtubule dynamics and that it may influence microtubule polymerization in growth cones. Here, we demonstrate that in vivo, SCG10 exists in both phosphorylated and(More)
Dynamic assembly and disassembly of microtubules is essential for cell division, cell movements, and intracellular transport. In the developing nervous system, microtubule dynamics play a fundamental role during neurite outgrowth, elongation, and branching, but the molecular mechanisms involved are unknown. SCG10 is a neuron-specific protein that is(More)
Bcl-2 family proteins regulate apoptosis, in part, by controlling formation of the mitochondrial apoptosis-induced channel (MAC), which is a putative cytochrome c release channel induced early in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. This channel activity was never observed in Bcl-2-overexpressing cells. Furthermore, MAC appears when Bax translocates to(More)
Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization by proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, such as Bax, plays a crucial role in apoptosis induction. However, whether this only causes the intracytosolic release of inducers of caspase-dependent death, such as cytochrome c, or also of caspase-independent death, such as apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) remains(More)