Bruno Andreotti

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Field studies of barchans--crescent-shaped dunes that propagate over solid ground under conditions of unidirectional wind--have long focused on the investigation of an equilibrium between sand transport by wind and the control of air flow by dune topography, which are thought to control dune morphology and kinematics. Because of the long timescale involved,(More)
Almost fifty years of investigations of barchan dunes morphology and dynamics is reviewed, with emphasis on the physical understanding of these objects. The characteristics measured on the field (shape, size, velocity) and the physical problems they rise are presented. Then, we review the dynamical mechanisms explaining the formation and the propagation of(More)
We present in this paper a simplification of the dune model proposed by Sauermann et al. which keeps the basic mechanisms but allows analytical and parametric studies. Two kinds of purely propagative two dimensional solutions are exhibited: dunes and domes, which, by contrast to the former, do not show avalanche slip face. Their shape and velocity can be(More)
The linear stability analysis of the equations governing the evolution of a flat sand bed submitted to a turbulent shear flow predicts that the wavelength λ at which the bed destabilises to form dunes should scale with the drag length Ldrag = ρs ρf d. This scaling law is tested using existing and new measurements performed in water (subaqueous ripples), in(More)
It is widely accepted that both ripples and dunes form in rivers by primary linear instability, the wavelength of the former scaling on the grain size, that of the latter being controled by the water depth. We revisit here this problem, using the computation of the turbulent flow over a wavy bottom performed in Part 1. A multi-scale description of the(More)
A new experiment can create small scale barchan dunes under water: some sand is put on a tray moving periodically and asymmetrically in a water tank, and barchans rapidly form. We measure basic morphological and dynamical properties of these dunes and compare them to field data. These favorable results demonstrate experimentally the relevance of the(More)
Barchans are crescentic dunes propagating on a solid ground. They form dune fields in the shape of elongated corridors in which the size and spacing between dunes are rather well selected. We show that even very realistic models for solitary dunes do not reproduce these corridors. Instead, two instabilities take place. First, barchans receive a sand flux at(More)
Singing dunes, which emit a loud sound as they avalanche, constitute a striking and poorly understood natural phenomenon. We show that, on the one hand, avalanches excite elastic waves at the surface of the dune, whose vibration produces the coherent acoustic emission in the air. The amplitude of the sound (approximately 105 dB) saturates exactly when the(More)
A solid object can be coated by a nonwetting liquid since a receding contact line cannot exceed a critical speed. In this Letter we study the dynamical wetting transition at which a liquid film gets deposited by withdrawing a vertical plate out of a liquid reservoir. It has recently been predicted that this wetting transition is critical with diverging time(More)
The structure of the barchan field located between Tarfaya and Laayoune (Atlantic Sahara, Morroco) is quantitatively investigated and compared to that in La Pampa de la Joya (Arequipa, Peru). On the basis of field measurements, we show how the volume, the velocity and the output sand flux of a dune can be computed from the value of its body and horn widths.(More)