Bruce W. Richards

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The microtubule network is thought to be used for long-range transport of cellular components in animal cells whereas the actin network is proposed to be used for short-range transport, although the mechanism(s) by which this transport is coordinated is poorly understood. For example, in sea urchins long-range Ca2+-regulated transport of exocytotic vesicles(More)
Rapid organelle transport is required for process growth and establishment of specialized structures during neuronal development. Furthermore, maintenance of mature neuronal architecture and function depends on the proper delivery of materials to specialized domains within axons, such as nodes of Ranvier and synaptic terminals. Kinesin is the most abundant(More)
We collected data from a large series of patients with ocular palsies and compared them with data in previous series from the Mayo Clinic. The largest group of patients among 4,278 cases was that in which the cause was undetermined for a long period of follow-up. The abducens nerve was most commonly affected. The probability of establishing a diagnosis was(More)
Movements of membrane-bounded organelles through cytoplasm frequently occur along microtubules, as in the neuron-specific case of fast axonal transport. To shed light on how microtubule-based organelle motility is regulated, pharmacological probes for GTP-binding proteins, or protein kinases or phosphatases were perfused into axoplasm extruded from squid(More)
Axoplasm prepared as described above will maintain high levels of fast axonal transport for 1-2 hours, although moderate decrements in the average velocity may be noted over time. The organelles and structures that can be detected in isolated axoplasma are as small as the 50-nm synaptic vesicles or 25-nm microtubules, well below the limits of resolution for(More)