Bruce W. Hollis

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In innate immune responses, activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggers direct antimicrobial activity against intracellular bacteria, which in murine, but not human, monocytes and macrophages is mediated principally by nitric oxide. We report here that TLR activation of human macrophages up-regulated expression of the vitamin D receptor and the(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin D has potent anticancer properties, especially against digestive-system cancers. Many human studies have used geographic residence as a marker of solar ultraviolet B and hence vitamin D exposure. Here, we considered multiple determinants of vitamin D exposure (dietary and supplementary vitamin D, skin pigmentation, adiposity, geographic(More)
The need, safety, and effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy remain controversial. In this randomized, controlled trial, women with a singleton pregnancy at 12 to 16 weeks' gestation received 400, 2000, or 4000 IU of vitamin D(3) per day until delivery. The primary outcome was maternal/neonatal circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D](More)
Several lines of evidence suggest that vitamin D may reduce incidence of breast cancer, but few epidemiologic studies have addressed the relation of plasma vitamin D metabolites to the risk of this disease. We prospectively examined the relationship between plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] and risk of(More)
Experimental and epidemiologic studies suggest that vitamin D metabolites (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D] and its precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]) may reduce breast cancer risk. We examined subsequent breast cancer risk related to serum levels of these metabolites. In a cohort of women ages 55 to 74 years, who donated blood at baseline(More)
CONTEXT Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that high levels of vitamin D, a potent immunomodulator, may decrease the risk of multiple sclerosis. There are no prospective studies addressing this hypothesis. OBJECTIVE To examine whether levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are associated with risk of multiple sclerosis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND(More)
Vitamins D(2) and D(3) are generally considered to be equivalent in humans. Nevertheless, physicians commonly report equivocal responses to seemingly large doses of the only high-dose calciferol (vitamin D(2)) available in the U.S. market. The relative potencies of vitamins D(2) and D(3) were evaluated by administering single doses of 50,000 IU of the(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin D deficiency may be involved in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease in humans. METHODS We assessed prospectively whether plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations are associated with risk of coronary heart disease. A nested case-control study was conducted in 18,225 men in the Health Professionals(More)
Concerns about vitamin D have resurfaced in medical and scientific literature because the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the United States, particularly among darkly pigmented persons, has increased. The primary goals of this review were to discuss past and current literature and to reassess the dietary reference intake for vitamin D in adults, with(More)
It has been more than 3 decades since the first assay assessing circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in human subjects was performed and led to the definition of "normal" nutritional vitamin D status, i.e., vitamin D sufficiency. Sampling human subjects, who appear to be free from disease, and assessing "normal" circulating 25(OH)D levels based on a(More)