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The identification and elimination of persistently infected (PI) cattle are the most effective measures for controlling bovine pestiviruses, including bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and the emerging HoBi-like viruses. Here, colostrum-deprived calves persistently infected with HoBi-like pestivirus (HoBi-like PI calves) were generated and sampled (serum,(More)
OBJECTIVE To inoculate white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during the sixth or seventh week of gestation with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and observe for signs of reproductive tract disease during a 182-day period. ANIMALS 10 pregnant white-tailed deer (8 seronegative and 2 seropositive [control deer] for BVDV). PROCEDURES Deer were(More)
After undergoing arrival processing at one of two commercial feedlots, feeder calves with clinical signs of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) were randomly assigned to receive either tulathromycin (2.4 mg/kg SC) or enrofloxacin (12.5 mg/kg SC). Additional therapy for calves that did not respond to initial treatment followed a prescribed course. Initial(More)
Immune mechanisms mediating protective immunity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are not well understood. The PRRSV-specific humoral immune response has been dismissed as being ineffective and perhaps deleterious for the host. The function of PRRSV antibodies in protective immunity against infection with a highly(More)
This document is the consensus of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians (AAVLD) Subcommittee on Standardization of Immunohistochemistry on a set of guidelines for immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing in veterinary laboratories. Immunohistochemistry is a powerful ancillary methodology frequently used in many veterinary laboratories(More)
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) continues to be of economic significance to the livestock industry in terms of acute disease and fetal loss. Many of the lesions relating to BVDV infection have been well described previously. The virus is perpetuated in herds through the presence of calves that are persistently infected. Relationships between various(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate persistence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in semen after inoculation of postpubertal bulls. ANIMALS Three 2-year-old bulls and five 6-month-old calves. PROCEDURE 3 seronegative 2-year-old bulls were inoculated intranasally with BVDV. Serum and semen samples were obtained at regular intervals until 7 months after(More)
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a major cause of respiratory disease and a major contributor to the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex. BRSV infects the upper and lower respiratory tract and is shed in nasal secretions. The close relatedness of BRSV to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) has allowed researchers to use BRSV and HRSV(More)
Pseudorabies is caused by Suid herpesvirus 1, a member of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily. Although pigs are the natural host of Pseudorabies virus (PRV), the virus has a broad host range and may cause fatal encephalitis in many species. The United States obtained PRV-free status in 2004 after the virus was eradicated from domestic swineherds, but the(More)