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OBJECTIVE To determine the suitability and estimate the sensitivity of an immunohistochemical (IHC) test for disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in biopsy specimens of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) for diagnosis of scrapie in sheep. ANIMALS 762 sheep at high risk for having scrapie and indemnified by the National Scrapie(More)
(TB) is endemic in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the northeastern portion of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. Bovine TB in deer and cattle has created immense fi nancial consequences for the livestock industry and hunting public. Surveillance identifi ed coyotes (Canis latrans) as potential bio-accumulators of Mycobacterium bovis, a fi nding that(More)
Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since spread to cervids in 23 states, two Canadian provinces, and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling(More)
In 2009, Mycobacterium bovis infection was detected in a herd of 60 elk (Cervus elaphus) and 50 fallow deer (Dama dama) in Nebraska, USA. Upon depopulation of the herd, the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) was estimated at ∼71-75%, based upon histopathology and culture results. Particularly with elk, gross lesions were often severe and extensive. One(More)
In the USA, all species of Cervidae are included in the USDA's uniform methods and rules for the eradication of bovine tuberculosis and, therefore, are subject to regulations regarding intradermal tuberculin testing. In reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), infection with Mycobacterium bovis is exceedingly rare and the response of reindeer to infection with M.(More)
Apparent prevalence, although useful as a consistent index, may underestimate the true prevalence of disease. In Michigan, the ability to estimate the true prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (TB; caused by Mycobacterium bovis) in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) will become increasingly important to accurately assess progress towards(More)
In February and March 2009, approximately 1,500 backyard pigs of variable age became sick, and approximately 700 of them died or were euthanized in the Lower Artibonite Valley and the Lower Plateau of the Republic of Haiti. The main clinical sign was posterior ataxia followed by paresis and/or paralysis on the second or third day of illness. No gross(More)
Our objective was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the agar-gel-immunodiffusion test (AGID), the ELISA, and the skin test for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in sheep using Bayesian methods without a gold standard. Fourteen flocks (2 465 sheep) were used. Five flocks (450 sheep) were considered MAP(More)
Bloemfontein. Whole blood samples were drawn aseptically from each lion into EDTA tubes, stored at 4°C before being returned to the laboratory, and then frozen at –70°C in the laboratory. Subsequently, blood samples were thawed, and an aliquot was plated onto 10% sheep blood–enriched agar and incubated at 37°C in a 5% CO 2 atmosphere for a maximum of 45(More)
The granulomatous enteric lesions of cattle with Johne's disease are composed of infected macrophages, and grow by accumulation, re-infection, and expansion of macrophage populations in the intestinal wall. We have examined the growth of bacteria in macrophages to define characteristics of intracellular trafficking for exocytosis, replication, and antigen(More)