Bruce T. Shiramizu

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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dementia remains as an important cause of neurological morbidity among HIV-seropositive (HIV+) individuals. Differences in the neuropsychological profiles between older and younger HIV+ individuals have not been examined extensively. The objective of this study was to examine the neuropsychological test performance between(More)
Low CD4 lymphocyte count was a marker for neurological disease in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); but is now less common among patients with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy. In this study, the authors determine the reliability of self-reported CD4 nadir and its predictive value for neurological status. The authors identify a high(More)
High levels of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and specifically within CD14+ blood monocytes, have been found in HIV-infected individuals with neurocognitive impairment and dementia. The failure of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to eliminate cognitive dysfunction in HIV may be secondary to(More)
OBJECTIVE We evaluated regional brain volumes and cerebral metabolite levels as correlates of HIV DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). METHODS In this cross-sectional study, 35 HIV+ subjects aged ≥40 years (25 with detectable PBMC HIV DNA; 10 with HIV DNA <10 copies/10(6) cells, the threshold of detection) and 12 seronegative controls(More)
OBJECTIVES Cognitive impairment remains frequent in HIV, despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Leading theories implicate peripheral monocyte HIV DNA reservoirs as a mechanism for spread of the virus to the brain. These reservoirs remain present despite cART. The objective of this study was to determine if the level of HIV DNA in CD14(+)(More)
The effect that HIV type 1 (HIV) has on neurocognition is a dynamic process whereby peripheral events are likely involved in setting the stage for clinical findings. In spite of antiretroviral therapy (ART), patients continue to be at risk for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which might be related to persistence of inflammation. In a yearly(More)
The authors previously found a strong association between elevated HIV proviral DNA (HIV DNA) and a diagnosis of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) vs. normal cognition. It is unclear whether HIV DNA globally affects the diagnosis of HAD or whether the effect is limited to individual neuropsychological deficits. This exploratory study examined baseline HIV DNA(More)
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist despite plasma HIV RNA suppression with antiretrovirals (ARV). Sequestered reservoirs in the central nervous system and circulating monocytes are theorized to contribute to persistent brain injury. We previously demonstrated that elevated intracellular HIV DNA from circulating cells was associated with(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was previously associated with neuropsychological function. By including individuals encompassing the full range of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders, this study reports results from subjects with normal cognition, minor cognitive motor disorder, and HIV-1-associated(More)
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continues to be prevalent (30–50 %) despite plasma HIV-RNA suppression with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). There is no proven therapy for individuals on suppressive cART with HAND. We have shown that the degree of HIV reservoir burden (HIV DNA) in monocytes appear to be linked to cognitive outcomes.(More)