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BACKGROUND Antiretroviral therapy has improved survival for HIV-1-infected individuals. The neuroepidemiologic implications of HIV-1 in an aging population are not well known, particularly the prevalence of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). METHODS The authors report a baseline cross-sectional analysis of 202 HIV-1-seropositive individuals enrolled into one(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the peripheral fat wasting (lipodystrophy), which is seen in association with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) that includes a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), is associated with a decrease in subcutaneous adipose tissue mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content or with large mtDNA deletions or(More)
There are discrepant findings regarding the risk of HIV-associated dementia (HAD) relating to apolipoprotein E4, suggesting other factors may modulate risk. Furthermore, evidence suggests a changing phenotype of HAD in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), prompting a need to determine if new disease markers have emerged. In this(More)
It is broadly accepted that HIV DNA in lymphoid and myeloid cells persists despite combination antiretroviral therapy. Recognized as the Achilles heel to HIV eradication, the role of these peripheral reservoirs in HIV morbidity is less well developed. The burden of HIV DNA in peripheral mononuclear cells is linked to HIV disease outcomes such as time to(More)
OBJECTIVE Individuals continue to develop HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) despite treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Monocytes/macrophages (M/MPhi) can harbor proviral DNA that is not eradicated by HAART. To determine if HAD is associated with the level of HIV-1 infection within circulating leukocytes, we quantified HIV-1 DNA copy(More)
OBJECTIVES The extent to which highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era cognitive disorders are due to active processes, incomplete clearance of reservoirs, or comorbidities is controversial. This study aimed to determine if immunologic and virologic factors influence cognition after first-time HAART in Thai individuals with HIV-associated dementia(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was previously associated with neuropsychological function. By including individuals encompassing the full range of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders, this study reports results from subjects with normal cognition, minor cognitive motor disorder, and HIV-1-associated(More)
OBJECTIVES Cognitive impairment remains frequent in HIV, despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Leading theories implicate peripheral monocyte HIV DNA reservoirs as a mechanism for spread of the virus to the brain. These reservoirs remain present despite cART. The objective of this study was to determine if the level of HIV DNA in CD14(+)(More)
Recent studies of pregnant women and animal models have raised concerns regarding potentially serious mitochondrial toxicity-related side effects in infants born to mothers who received nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) during their pregnancy to prevent HIV-1 perinatal transmission. The aim of this study was to assess mitochondrial DNA(More)
BACKGROUND Monocytes transmigrating to the brain play a central role in HIV neuropathology. We hypothesized that the continued existence of neurocognitive impairment (NCI) despite potent antiretroviral (ARV) therapy is mediated by the inability of such therapy to control this monocyte/macrophage reservoir. METHODS Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses(More)