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BACKGROUND There is little systematically derived evidence-based guidance to inform plasma transfusion decisions. To address this issue, the AABB commissioned the development of clinical practice guidelines to help direct appropriate transfusion of plasma. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis of randomized and observational(More)
Emerging evidence supports a role for platelets in the progression of atherosclerosis in addition to an involvement in thrombotic vascular occlusion. Platelet Factor 4 (PF4), a chemokine released by activated platelets, stimulates several pro-atherogenic processes. Therefore, we examined the localization of PF4 and the homologous protein, Neutrophil(More)
Accumulation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol by macrophages in vessel walls is a pathogenomic feature of atherosclerotic lesions. Platelets contribute to lipid uptake by macrophages through mechanisms that are only partially understood. We have previously shown that platelet factor 4 (PF4) inhibits the binding and degradation of LDL(More)
The influence of platelets on the cellular metabolism of atherogenic lipoproteins has not been characterized in detail. Therefore, we investigated the effect of platelet factor 4 (PF4), a cationic protein released in high concentration by activated platelets, on the uptake and degradation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) via the LDL receptor (LDL-R).(More)
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (HITT) is a severe complication of heparin therapy caused by antibodies to complexes between unfractionated heparin (UFH) and platelet factor 4 (PF4) that form over a narrow molar range of reactants and initiate antibody-induced platelet activation. We observed that UFH and tetrameric PF4 formed ultralarge (>(More)
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia/thrombosis (HIT/HITT) is a severe, life-threatening complication that occurs in 1% to 3% of patients exposed to heparin. Interactions between heparin, human platelet factor 4 (hPF4), antibodies to the hPF4/heparin complex, and the platelet Fc receptor (FcR) for immunoglobulin G, FcgammaRIIA, are the proposed primary(More)
Inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. On the basis of previous reports that human atherosclerotic lesions contain alpha-defensins, a class of cationic proteins released by activated neutrophils, the study was designed to ask whether defensins modulate the binding and catabolism of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by human vascular(More)
Laboratory testing for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) has important shortcomings. Immunoassays fail to discriminate platelet-activating from nonpathogenic antibodies. Specific functional assays are impracticable due to the need for platelets and radioisotope. We describe 2 assays that may overcome these limitations. The KKO-inhibition test (KKO-I)(More)
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited disorder of lipoprotein metabolism involving mutations in the LDL receptor (LDL-R). Patients with mutation in one (heterozygous) or both (homozygous) genes have markedly elevated LDL cholesterol and are at increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Aggressive lipid lowering is required for homozygous(More)
Activated platelets, which release platelet factor 4 (PF4) are present in patients with atherosclerosis. To date, no direct in-vivo evidence exists for the involvement of PF4 in atherogenesis. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that PF4 is atherogenic, and that genetic elimination of PF4 would protect mice from atherosclerosis. We have bred(More)