Bruce Richard Carr

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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, highly heritable complex disorder of unknown aetiology characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation and defects in glucose homeostasis. Increased luteinizing hormone relative to follicle-stimulating hormone secretion, insulin resistance and developmental exposure to androgens are hypothesized to play a(More)
The steroid-metabolizing enzyme, type I 17 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (17 beta-HSOR) also called 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17 beta-HSD) plays a key role in ovarian synthesis of 17 beta-estradiol. This is the only enzyme in the steroid-metabolizing pathway which has not been localized in the human ovary by immunohistochemistry. In this(More)
Adrenarche is the increased adrenal production of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) that occurs during the prepubertal period. To date, the exact mechanism initiating adrenarche is unknown, although many factors have been postulated. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that alterations in intra-adrenal(More)
The ovary is a complex endocrine gland responsible for production of sex steroids and is the source of fertilizable ova for reproduction. It also produces various growth factors, transcription factors and cytokines that assist in the complex signaling pathways of folliculogenesis. The ovary possesses two primary steroidogenic cell types. The theca cells(More)
The human adrenal cortex produces aldosterone, cortisol and the so-called adrenal androgens, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS). Within the adult adrenal, the zona glomerulosa produces aldosterone, the zona fasciculata cortisol and the zona reticularis both DHEA and DHEAS. The processes regulating aldosterone and cortisol synthesis are(More)
C19 steroids are converted to estrogens by aromatase P450 (P450arom). Aromatase expression in humans is regulated by use of tissue-specific promoters in the placenta (promoter I.1), adipose tissue (promoters I.4, I.3, and II), and gonads (promoter II). The use of each promoter gives rise to a population of P450arom messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) species(More)
We previously demonstrated that 17beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, the enzyme that inactivates estradiol to estrone, is expressed in luteal eutopic endometrium in response to progesterone but not in simultaneously biopsied peritoneal endometriotic tissue. This molecular evidence of progesterone resistance, together with the clinical observation of(More)
The nerve growth factor-induced clone B (NGFI-B) family of transcription factors are orphan members of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily. The NGFI-B expression was recently shown in the rat ovarian tissue and appears to be regulated by gonadotrophins. The purpose of our study was to investigate the role of the three members of this family [NGFI-B,(More)
Aberrant up-regulation of aromatase in eutopic endometrium and implants from women with endometriosis has been reported. Aromatase induction may be mediated by increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Recently, we demonstrated that progesterone receptor (PR)-A and PR-B serve an antiinflammatory role in the uterus by antagonizing nuclear factor kappaB activation(More)
The ability of angiotensin-II (A-II) to increase cAMP production in adrenocortical cells is not widely accepted due to numerous conflicting reports. The recent observation that rat adrenal cells exhibit multiple subtypes of A-II receptors raises the possibility that a specific subtype could be responsible for controlling cAMP stimulation. In the present(More)