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Maize starchy endosperm mutants have kernel phenotypes that include a brittle texture, susceptibility to insect pests, and inferior functional characteristics of products made from their flour. At least 18 such mutants have been identified, but only in the cases of opaque2 (o2) and floury2 (fl2), which affect different aspects of storage protein synthesis,(More)
The combination of sucrose and starch in the presence of surface-adsorbed salivary α-amylase and bacterial glucosyltransferases increase the formation of a structurally and metabolically distinctive biofilm by Streptococcus mutans. This host-pathogen-diet interaction may modulate the formation of pathogenic biofilms related to dental caries disease. We(More)
UNLABELLED To compete for the dynamic stream of nutrients flowing into their ecosystem, colonic bacteria must respond rapidly to new resources and then catabolize them efficiently once they are detected. The Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron starch utilization system (Sus) is a model for nutrient acquisition by symbiotic gut bacteria, which harbor thousands of(More)
UNLABELLED Gut microbiota has been implicated as a pivotal contributing factor in diet-related obesity; however, its role in development of disease phenotypes in human genetic obesity such as Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) remains elusive. In this hospitalized intervention trial with PWS (n = 17) and simple obesity (n = 21) children, a diet rich in(More)
Glycogen expressed by the lower genital tract epithelium is believed to support Lactobacillus growth in vivo, although most genital isolates of Lactobacillus are not able to use glycogen as an energy source in vitro. We recently reported that α-amylase is present in the genital fluid of women and that it breaks down glycogen into small carbohydrates that(More)
For starch digestion to glucose, two luminal α-amylases and four gut mucosal α-glucosidase subunits are employed. The aim of this research was to investigate, for the first time, direct digestion capability of individual mucosal α-glucosidases on cooked (gelatinized) starch. Gelatinized normal maize starch was digested with N- and C-terminal subunits of(More)
Starch digestion in the human body is typically viewed in a sequential manner beginning with α-amylase and followed by α-glucosidase to produce glucose. This report indicates that the two enzyme types can act synergistically to digest granular starch structure. The aim of this study was to investigate how the mucosal α-glucosidases act with α-amylase to(More)
For digestion of starch in humans, α-amylase first hydrolyzes starch molecules to produce α-limit dextrins, followed by complete hydrolysis to glucose by the mucosal α-glucosidases in the small intestine. It is known that α-1,6 linkages in starch are hydrolyzed at a lower rate than are α-1,4 linkages. Here, to create designed slowly digestible(More)
UNLABELLED ᅟ: Starch requires six enzymes for digestion to free glucose: two amylases (salivary and pancreatic) and four mucosal maltase activities; sucrase-isomaltase and maltase-glucoamylase. All are deficient in suckling rodents. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to test (13)C-starch digestion before weaning by measuring enrichment of blood(More)
Using the small intestine enterocyte Caco-2 cell model, sucrase-isomaltase (SI, the mucosal α-glucosidase complex) expression and modification were examined relative to exposure to different mono- and disaccharide glycemic carbohydrates. Caco-2/TC7 cells were grown on porous supports to post-confluence for complete differentiation, and dietary carbohydrate(More)