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Maize starchy endosperm mutants have kernel phenotypes that include a brittle texture, susceptibility to insect pests, and inferior functional characteristics of products made from their flour. At least 18 such mutants have been identified, but only in the cases of opaque2 (o2) and floury2 (fl2), which affect different aspects of storage protein synthesis,(More)
The endosperm of a sorghum mutant cultivar, with high in vitro uncooked and cooked protein digestibilities, was examined by transmission electron microscopy and alpha-, beta-, and gamma-kafirins (storage proteins) were localized within its protein bodies. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs revealed that these protein bodies had a unique(More)
Lysine is the most limiting essential amino acid in cereals, and for many years plant breeders have attempted to increase its concentration to improve the nutritional quality of these grains. The opaque2 mutation in maize doubles the lysine content in the endosperm, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. We show that elongation factor 1 alpha(More)
The hypothesis of increasing the branch density of starch to reduce its digestion rate through partial shortening of amylopectin exterior chains and the length of amylose was investigated. Starch products prepared using beta-amylase, beta-amylase and transglucosidase, maltogenic alpha-amylase, and maltogenic alpha-amylase and transglucosidase showed(More)
Quality protein maize (QPM) was created by selecting genetic modifiers that convert the starchy endosperm of an opaque2 (o2) mutant to a hard, vitreous phenotype. Genetic analysis has shown that there are multiple, unlinked o2 modifiers (Opm), but their identity and mode of action are unknown. Using two independently developed QPM lines, we mapped several(More)
Lactobacillus colonization of the lower female genital tract provides protection from the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and from adverse pregnancy outcomes. While glycogen in vaginal epithelium is thought to support Lactobacillus colonization in vivo, many Lactobacillus isolates cannot utilize glycogen(More)
The relationship between the slow digestion property of cooked maize starch and its molecular fine structure was investigated. Results of the in vitro Englyst assay showed a range of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) (70.1-98.9%), slowly digestible starch (SDS) (0.2-20.3%), and resistant starch (RS) (0.0-13.7%) among the tested maize mutant flour samples.(More)
The relative distribution of B-6 vitamers, separated by reverse-phase liquid chromatography, was examined in human milk during a 24-h period after supplementation with 2.5 or 15 mg pyridoxine hydrochloride. Consistently, pyridoxal (PL) was the predominate vitamer and the most responsive to vitamin B-6 intake. During 3-8 h after supplement ingestion, PL,(More)
Even though there are many factors that determine the human colon microbiota composition, diet is an important one because most microorganisms in the colon obtain energy for their growth by degrading complex dietary compounds, particularly dietary fibers. While fiber carbohydrates that escape digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract are recognized to(More)
The innate and adaptive immune systems are important mechanisms for resistance to pathogens in the female lower genital tract. Lactobacilli at this site help maintain a healthy vagina by producing several factors including lactic acid. Indeed, bacterial vaginosis, a condition in which the genital microbiota is altered, is strongly associated with increased(More)