Bruce R Hamaker

Learn More
Maize starchy endosperm mutants have kernel phenotypes that include a brittle texture, susceptibility to insect pests, and inferior functional characteristics of products made from their flour. At least 18 such mutants have been identified, but only in the cases of opaque2 (o2) and floury2 (fl2), which affect different aspects of storage protein synthesis,(More)
The endosperm of a sorghum mutant cultivar, with high in vitro uncooked and cooked protein digestibilities, was examined by transmission electron microscopy and alpha-, beta-, and gamma-kafirins (storage proteins) were localized within its protein bodies. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs revealed that these protein bodies had a unique(More)
Lysine is the most limiting essential amino acid in cereals, and for many years plant breeders have attempted to increase its concentration to improve the nutritional quality of these grains. The opaque2 mutation in maize doubles the lysine content in the endosperm, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. We show that elongation factor 1 alpha(More)
Quality protein maize (QPM) was created by selecting genetic modifiers that convert the starchy endosperm of an opaque2 (o2) mutant to a hard, vitreous phenotype. Genetic analysis has shown that there are multiple, unlinked o2 modifiers (Opm), but their identity and mode of action are unknown. Using two independently developed QPM lines, we mapped several(More)
The detailed mechanistic aspects for the final starch digestion process leading to effective alpha-glucogenesis by the 2 mucosal alpha-glucosidases, human sucrase-isomaltase complex (SI) and human maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM), are poorly understood. This is due to the structural complexity and vast variety of starches and their intermediate digestion(More)
UNLABELLED The possibility to identify or develop new rice cultivars with low glycemic response was investigated. Twelve rice cultivars with a narrow range of amylose contents were selected based on their wide variation in rapid viscoanalyzer (RVA) pasting breakdown to study the relationship between starch digestibility and amylopectin fine structure and(More)
The combination of sucrose and starch in the presence of surface-adsorbed salivary α-amylase and bacterial glucosyltransferases increase the formation of a structurally and metabolically distinctive biofilm by Streptococcus mutans. This host-pathogen-diet interaction may modulate the formation of pathogenic biofilms related to dental caries disease. We(More)
The slow digestion property of native cereal starches, represented by normal maize starch, was investigated. The in vitro Englyst test showed that 53.0% of the maize starch is slowly digestible starch (SDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that SDS starts from an increase of pore size until almost complete fragmentation of starch granules.(More)
SCOPE The four mucosal α-glucosidases, which differ in their digestive roles, generate glucose from glycemic carbohydrates and accordingly can be viewed as a control point for rate of glucose delivery to the body. In this study, individual recombinant enzymes were used to understand how α-glucan oligomers are digested by each enzyme, and how intermediate(More)
The effect of maternal vitamin B-6 deficiency on concentrations of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) within four different regions of the central nervous system (CNS) of progeny, the corpus striatum (CS), hypothalamus (H), cerebellum (C), total brain and first cervical segment (C-1) of the spinal cord was determined at 7, 15, 21 and 50 days of age. PLP(More)