Bruce R Blazar

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The immune response plays an important role in staving off cancer; however, mechanisms of immunosuppression hinder productive anti-tumor immunity. T cell dysfunction or exhaustion in tumor-bearing hosts is one such mechanism. PD-1 has been identified as a marker of exhausted T cells in chronic disease states, and blockade of PD-1-PD-1L interactions has been(More)
We previously demonstrated that autologous natural killer (NK)-cell therapy after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is safe but does not provide an antitumor effect. We hypothesize that this is due to a lack of NK-cell inhibitory receptor mismatching with autologous tumor cells, which may be overcome by allogeneic NK-cell infusions. Here, we test(More)
A small population of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) in mouse tumor-draining LNs can express the immunoregulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). We show that these IDO+ pDCs directly activate resting CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs for potent suppressor activity. In vivo, Tregs isolated from tumor-draining LNs were constitutively activated and suppressed(More)
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is associated with high risk of morbidity and mortality and is a common complication after double umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation. To reduce these risks, we established a method of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T regulatory cell (Treg) enrichment from cryopreserved UCB followed by a 18 (+) 1-day expansion culture(More)
The potential benefits of unrelated donor marrow transplantation are offset by the immunologic complications of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and infection. Therefore, we used cryopreserved umbilical cord blood (UCB) as a strategy to reduce the risks of GVHD and treatment-related mortality (TRM) and improve survival. Data on 102 patients (median age 7.4(More)
Immune regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+) cells play a vital role in the induction and maintenance of self-tolerance and the prevention of autoimmunity. Recently, CD4(+)CD25(+) cells have been shown to be required for the ex vivo induction of tolerance to alloantigen via costimulatory blockade and to inhibit allogeneic skin graft rejection. Data presented here(More)
BACKGROUND Oral mucositis is a complication of intensive chemotherapy and radiotherapy with no effective treatment. We tested the ability of palifermin (recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor) to decrease oral mucosal injury induced by cytotoxic therapy. METHODS This double-blind study compared the effect of palifermin with that of a placebo on the(More)
Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is used to treat a variety of disorders, but its efficacy is limited by the occurrence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The past decade has brought impressive advances in our understanding of the role of stimulatory and suppressive elements of the adaptive and innate immune systems from both the donor(More)
We evaluated the efficacy of umbilical cord blood (UCB) in the setting of a nonmyeloablative regimen consisting of fludarabine (200 mg/m2), cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg), and a single fraction of total body irradiation (200 cGy) with cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil for posttransplantation immunoprophylaxis. The target cell dose for the UCB graft was(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells derived from hematopoietic progenitor cells and circulating monocytes. To investigate the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) during DC differentiation, maturation, and function, we profiled miRNA expression in human monocytes, immature DCs (imDCs), and mature DCs (mDCs). Stage-specific, differential(More)