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Recent interpretations of Himalayan-Tibetan tectonics have proposed that channel flow in the middle to lower crust can explain outward growth of the Tibetan plateau, and that ductile extrusion of high-grade metamorphic rocks between coeval normal- and thrust-sense shear zones can explain exhumation of the Greater Himalayan sequence. Here we use coupled(More)
The adhesive strategy of the gecko relies on foot pads composed of specialized keratinous foot-hairs called setae, which are subdivided into terminal spatulae of approximately 200 nm (ref. 1). Contact between the gecko foot and an opposing surface generates adhesive forces that are sufficient to allow the gecko to cling onto vertical and even inverted(More)
Mussels attach to solid surfaces in the sea. Their adhesion must be rapid, strong, and tough, or else they will be dislodged and dashed to pieces by the next incoming wave. Given the dearth of synthetic adhesives for wet polar surfaces, much effort has been directed to characterizing and mimicking essential features of the adhesive chemistry practiced by(More)
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) residues are known for their ability to impart adhesive and curing properties to mussel adhesive proteins. In this paper, we report the preparation of linear and branched DOPA-modified poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEG-DOPAs) containing one to four DOPA endgroups. Gel permeation chromatography-multiple-angle laser light(More)
A new biomimetic strategy for modification of biomaterial surfaces with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was developed. The strategy exploits the adhesive characteristics of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), an important component of mussel adhesive proteins, to anchor PEG onto surfaces, rendering the surfaces resistant to cell attachment. Linear(More)
Marine mussels anchor to a variety of surfaces in turbulent intertidal zones through the use of adhesive plaques formed from hardened mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs). It is believed that 3,4-dihydroxyphen-ylalanine (DOPA) imparts both water-resistant adhesive characteristics and rapid curing ability to MAPs. In this paper, DOPA-modified triblock copolymers(More)
Due to the increasing needs for organ transplantation and a universal shortage of donated tissues, tissue engineering emerges as a useful approach to engineer functional tissues. Although different synthetic materials have been used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds, they have many limitations such as the biocompatibility concerns, the inability to(More)
The remarkable underwater adhesion strategy employed by mussels has inspired bioadhesives that have demonstrated promise in connective tissue repair, wound closure, and local delivery of therapeutic cells and drugs. While the pH of oxygenated blood and internal tissues is typically around 7.4, skin and tumor tissues are significantly more acidic.(More)
A synthetic mimic of mussel adhesive protein, dopamine-modified four-armed poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-D4), was combined with a synthetic nanosilicate, Laponite (Na(0.7+)(Mg5.5Li0.3Si8)O20(OH)4)(0.7-)), to form an injectable naoncomposite tissue adhesive hydrogel. Incorporation of up to 2 wt % Laponite significantly reduced the cure time while enhancing the(More)