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BACKGROUND Hyperglycaemia is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular complications in people with type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether reduction of blood glucose concentration decreases the rate of microvascular complications in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS ACCORD was a parallel-group, randomised trial done in 77 clinical sites in(More)
BACKGROUND An endogenous digitalis-like compound in mammals has long been postulated, but only recently has a substance indistinguishable from ouabain been identified in human plasma. Because of the potential significance of such a substance in patients with congestive heart failure, we sought to evaluate the pathophysiology of endogenous ouabain in these(More)
Elevated levels of an endogenous ouabain circulate in many patients with essential hypertension. However, in contrast to ouabain, digoxin does not induce hypertension. This study investigated the hypothesis that within a single cardiac glycoside, the structural elements that induce hypertension differ from those responsible for high potency as a sodium pump(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether blood pressure is reduced for at least 6 months with an intervention to lower alcohol intake in moderate to heavy drinkers with above optimal to slightly elevated diastolic blood pressure, and whether reduction of alcohol intake can be maintained for 2 years. DESIGN A randomized controlled trial. METHODS Six hundred(More)
OBJECTIVE Older adults with type 2 diabetes are at high risk of fractures and falls, but the effect of glycemic control on these outcomes is unknown. To determine the effect of intensive versus standard glycemic control, we assessed fractures and falls as outcomes in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) randomized trial. RESEARCH(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if baseline subgroups in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial can be identified for whom intensive compared with standard glycemia treatment had different effects on all-cause mortality. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Exploratory post hoc intention-to-treat comparisons were made between intensive and(More)
Sodium-potassium pumps (Na pumps) are the only known plasma membrane receptors for cardiac glycosides. However, adrenocortical cells secrete an endogenous ouabain via an unknown mechanism that is subject to feedback inhibition via the cell surface. In addition, recent studies suggest that the induction of sustained hypertension by ouabain analogs in rats(More)
A patient with panhypopituitarism and visual field defects due to a Rathke's cleft cyst is presented. These cysts are commonly found in random pituitaries examined at necropsy, but rarely produce symptoms. Subtle endocrine deficiencies, however, may now be uncovered more frequently with modern diagnostic techniques. An unusual and unreported feature of this(More)