Bruce Nordman

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Ethernet is the dominant wireline communications technology for LANs with over 1 billion interfaces installed in the U.S. and over 3 billion worldwide. In 2006 the IEEE 802.3 Working Group started an effort to improve the energy efficiency of Ethernet. This effort became IEEE P802.3az Energy Efficient Ethernet (EEE) resulting in IEEE Std 802.3az-2010, which(More)
The rapidly increasing energy consumption by computing and communications equipment is a significant economic and environmental problem that needs to be addressed. Ethernet network interface controllers (NICs) in the US alone consume hundreds of millions of US dollars in electricity per year. Most Ethernet links are underutilized and link energy consumption(More)
The IT equipment comprising the Internet in the USA uses about $6 billion of electricity every year. Much of this electricity use is wasted on idle, but fully powered-up, desktop PCs and network links. We show how to recover a large portion of the wasted electricity with improved power management methods that are focused on network issues.
Networked end-systems such as desktops and set-top boxes are often left powered-on, but idle, leading to wasted energy consumption. An alternative would be for these idle systems to enter low-power sleep modes. Unfortunately, today, a sleeping system sees degraded functionality: first, a sleeping device loses its network “presence” which is problematic to(More)
Storage, memory, processor, and communications bandwidth are all relatively plentiful and inexpensive. However, a growing expense in the operation of computer networks is electricity usage. Estimates place devices connected to the Internet as consuming about 2%, and growing, of the total electricity produced in the USA—much of this power consumption is(More)
Billions of dollars of electricity are being used to keep idle or unused network hosts fully powered-on only to maintain their network presence. We investigate how a network connectivity proxy (NCP) could enable significant energy savings by allowing idle hosts to enter a low-power sleep state and still maintain full network presence. An NCP must handle(More)
We offer an initial exploration of the architectural constructs required to support selective connectivity, whereby a host can choose the degree to which it maintains a network presence, rather than today’s binary notion of “connected” or “disconnected”. The driver for our thinking is to allow hosts to go to sleep to Proposed architectural elements We can(More)
Data centers are a significant and growing component of electricity demand in the United States. This paper presents a bottom-up model that can be used to estimate total data center electricity demand within a region as well as the potential electricity savings associated with energy efficiency improvements. The model is applied to estimate 2008 U.S. data(More)
N etworks are one of the most significant developments in computing and a hallmark of modern society. However, along with increasing efficiency and productivity, both at home and in the workplace, networks have costs. One cost is the additional energy that electronic devices consume when attached to networks. Recent studies indicate that the economic and(More)