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Lichens are reputedly slow growing and become unhealthy or die in response to supplements of the usual limiting resources, such as water and nitrogen. We found, however, that the tripartite cyanobacterial lichen Lobaria pulmonaria doubled in annual biomass growth after a single 20-minute immersion in a phosphorus solution (K2HPO4), as compared to controls(More)
Similarities in ozone regimes at sites in or near forests of the western United States were investigated using hierarchical cluster analysis on a (63 × 17) matrix of frequencies of occurrence of 17 characteristic diurnal patterns in hourly ozone concentrations. Eight groups of sites with similar ozone patterns were identified. Sites within these groups(More)
We studied the evolutionary history of the Parmeliaceae (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota), one of the largest families of lichen-forming fungi with complex and variable morphologies, also including several lichenicolous fungi. We assembled a six-locus data set including nuclear, mitochondrial and low-copy protein-coding genes from 293 operational taxonomic(More)
CrossMark ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT Article history: Data from large-scale biological inventories are essential for understanding and managing Earth's ecosystems. The Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) of the U.S. Forest Service is the largest biological inventory in North America; however, the FIA inventory recently changed from an amalgam of(More)
Travel for both business and pleasure can be a risk factor for substance abuse problems, for clinical deterioration in those with chemical dependence, and for relapse when an addiction has been in remission. Sedatives, opioids and alcohol can complicate many of the physiologic adjustments mandated by modern jet travel, such as adaptation to different(More)
The distribution of sample units in multivariate species space typically departs strongly from the multivariate normal distribution. Instead of forming a hyperellipse in species space, the sample points tend to lie along high-dimensional edges of the space. This dust bunny distribution is seen in most ecological community datasets. The practical(More)
Delimiting species boundaries among closely related lineages often requires a range of independent data sets and analytical approaches. Similar to other organismal groups, robust species circumscriptions in fungi are increasingly investigated within an empirical framework. Here we attempt to delimit species boundaries in a closely related clade of(More)
Mountain environments are currently among the ecosystems least invaded by non-native species; however, mountains are increasingly under threat of non-native plant invasion. The slow pace of exotic plant invasions in mountain ecosystems is likely due to a combination of low anthropogenic disturbances, low propagule supply, and extreme/steep environmental(More)
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