Decompression syndrome (caisson disease or the “the bends”) resulting in avascular necrosis has been documented in mosasaurs, sauropterygians, ichthyosaurs, and turtles from the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, but it was unclear that this disease occurred as far back as the Triassic. We have examined a large Triassic sample of ichthyosaurs and compared… (More)
Recognition of cancer in extreme antiquity has been limited to osteomas in mosasaurs and haemangiomas and growths of unclear origin in dinosaurs. We describe a metastatic cancer in a dinosaur.
The controversy over the reliability of ectocranial suture status (open vs. closed) as an age estimation stimulated the pursuit of Meindl and Lovejoy's suggestion (Meindl and Lovejoy  Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 68:57-66) for large scale analysis. The extent of the sagittal suture closure was assessed in 3,636 skulls from the Hamann-Todd and Terry… (More)
Data on the prevalence of bone cancer in dinosaurs is available from past radiological examination of preserved bones. We statistically test this data for consistency with rates extrapolated from information on bone cancer in modern vertebrates, and find that there is no evidence of a different rate. Thus, this test provides no support for a possible role… (More)
Tracing the evolution of ancient diseases depends on the availability and accessibility of suitable biomarkers in archaeological specimens. DNA is potentially information-rich but it depends on a favourable environment for preservation. In the case of the major mycobacterial pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, robust lipid… (More)
The purpose of this study was to assess birds as a potential model for osteoarthritis. Compromised by confounding factors, it has not been possible to clearly delineate causation in humans. Nonhuman mammals manifest osteoarthritis in the natural state too rarely for comparative study. Artificial environments (of captive animals) are associated with higher… (More)
neuroimaging. I laid out the critical prediction derived from load theory, namely that visual cortex responses to distractor stimuli should depend on the level of load in the attended task, in the same manner as I had shown in my behavioural studies. About a year later, following a departmental seminar, Chris introduced me to his PhD student saying: "… (More)