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For a coherent and meaningful life, conscious self-representation is mandatory. Such explicit "autonoetic consciousness" is thought to emerge by retrieval of memory of personally experienced events ("episodic memory"). During episodic retrieval, functional imaging studies consistently show differential activity in medial prefrontal and medial parietal(More)
Although improvements in performance due to TMS have been demonstrated with some cognitive tasks, performance improvement has not previously been demonstrated with working memory tasks. In the present study, a delayed match-to-sample task was used in which repetitive TMS (rTMS) at 1, 5, or 20 Hz was applied to either left dorsolateral prefrontal or midline(More)
Here we review the usefulness of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in modulating cortical networks in ways that might produce performance enhancements in healthy human subjects. To date over sixty studies have reported significant improvements in speed and accuracy in a variety of tasks involving perceptual, motor, and executive processing. Two basic(More)
Testing the therapeutic potential of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in controlled trials requires a valid sham condition. Sham TMS is typically administered by tilting the coil 45--90 degrees off the scalp, with one or two wings of the coil touching the scalp. Lack of cortical effects has not been verified. We compared sham manipulations in their(More)
The physical properties of the electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) stimulus markedly affect both efficacy and side effects. We review basic principles in characterizing these physical properties and in quantifying the ECT stimulus. The topics discussed include the application of Ohm's law, alternative composite units of ECT dosage (energy and charge), the use(More)
BACKGROUND P50 suppression is viewed as an operational measure of sensory "gating" that is reduced in patients with schizophrenia and their family members. Previous reports have demonstrated that neural gating is regulated by monoaminergic tone in rodent models of P50 suppression. METHODS In this study, 11 healthy subjects participated in P50(More)
Resting state, eyes closed, 19-lead EEG recordings were obtained at pre-ECT baseline and just prior to penultimate treatment and during the week following the ECT course in 59 patients with major depression. Patients had been randomized to ECT conditions that varied in electrode placement and stimulus intensity. The EEG data were submitted to power spectral(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the pathologic mechanisms of AD alter the brain networks subserving performance of a verbal recognition task. BACKGROUND Functional imaging studies comparing task-related activation in AD patients and controls generally have not used network analysis and have not controlled for task difficulty. METHODS H2 15O PET was used(More)
Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is a novel means of performing convulsive therapy using rapidly alternating strong magnetic fields. MST offers greater control of intracerebral current intensity than is possible with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). These features may result in a superior cognitive side effect profile for MST, while possibly retaining the(More)