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Grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) are part of an environment-independent spatial coordinate system. To determine how information about location, direction, and distance is integrated in the grid-cell network, we recorded from each principal cell layer of MEC in rats that explored two-dimensional environments. Whereas layer II was predominated(More)
The hippocampal formation can encode relative spatial location, without reference to external cues, by the integration of linear and angular self-motion (path integration). Theoretical studies, in conjunction with recent empirical discoveries, suggest that the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) might perform some of the essential underlying computations by(More)
Information theory is used to derive a simple formula for the amount of information conveyed by the ring rate of a neuron about any experimentally measured variable or combination of variables (e.g. running speed, head direction, location of the animal, etc.). The derivation treats the cell as a communication channel whose input is the measured variable and(More)
In the last decade the outlines of the neural structures subserving the sense of direction have begun to emerge. Several investigations have shed light on the effects of vestibular input and visual input on the head direction representation. In this paper, a model is formulated of the neural mechanisms underlying the head direction system. The model is(More)
Hippocampal neurons were recorded under conditions in which the recording chamber was varied but its location remained unchanged versus conditions in which an identical chamber was encountered in different places. Two forms of neuronal pattern separation occurred. In the variable cue-constant place condition, the firing rates of active cells varied, often(More)
Hippocampal neural codes for different, familiar environments are thought to reflect distinct attractor states, possibly implemented in the recurrent CA3 network. A defining property of an attractor network is its ability to undergo sharp and coherent transitions between pre-established (learned) representations when the inputs to the network are changed.(More)
We present a model that describes the generation of the spatial (grid fields) and temporal (phase precession) properties of medial entorhinal cortical (MEC) neurons by combining network and intrinsic cellular properties. The model incorporates network architecture derived from earlier attractor map models, and is implemented in 1D for simplicity. Periodic(More)
The transcription of the immediate-early genes Arc and Homer 1a (H1a) is dynamically regulated in response to synaptic activity; their protein products function at the postsynaptic sites of excitatory synapses. Previous studies demonstrate a role for Arc in the maintenance of long-term potentiation and in memory consolidation processes and indicate a role(More)
Learning sequences of events (e.g., a-b-c) is conceptually a simple problem that can be solved using asymmetrically linked cell assemblies [e.g., "phase sequences" (Hebb, 1949)], provided that the elements of the sequence are unique. When elements repeat within the sequence, however (e.g., a-b-c-d-b-e), the same element belongs to two separate "contexts,"(More)
As previously shown in the hippocampus and other brain areas, patterns of firing-rate correlations between neurons in the rat medial prefrontal cortex during a repetitive sequence task were preserved during subsequent sleep, suggesting that waking patterns are reactivated. We found that, during sleep, reactivation of spatiotemporal patterns was coherent(More)