Learn More
Formins are required for cell polarization and cytokinesis, but do not have a defined biochemical activity. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, formins and the actin-monomer-binding protein profilin are specifically required to assemble linear actin structures called 'actin cables'. These structures seem to be assembled independently of the Arp2/3 complex, the(More)
Formins have conserved roles in cell polarity and cytokinesis and directly nucleate actin filament assembly through their FH2 domain. Here, we define the active region of the yeast formin Bni1 FH2 domain and show that it dimerizes. Mutations that disrupt dimerization abolish actin assembly activity, suggesting that dimers are the active state of FH2(More)
BACKGROUND Dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton requires rapid turnover of actin filaments, which is regulated in part by the actin filament severing/depolymerization factor cofilin/ADF. Two factors that cooperate with cofilin are Srv2/CAP and Aip1. Human CAP enhances cofilin-mediated actin turnover in vitro, but its biophysical properties have not(More)
Formins are a widely expressed family of proteins that govern cell shape, adhesion, cytokinesis, and morphogenesis by remodeling the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. These large multidomain proteins associate with a variety of other cellular factors and directly nucleate actin polymerization through a novel mechanism. The signature formin homology 2(More)
Formin proteins participate in a wide range of cytoskeletal processes in all eukaryotes. The defining feature of formins is a highly conserved approximately 400 residue region, the Formin Homology-2 (FH2) domain, which has recently been found to nucleate actin filaments. Here we report crystal structures of the S. cerevesiae Bni1p FH2 domain. The mostly(More)
The two actin-related subunits of the Arp2/3 complex, Arp2 and Arp3, are proposed to form a pseudo actin dimer that nucleates actin polymerization. However, in the crystal structure of the inactive complex, they are too far apart to form such a nucleus. Here, we show using EM that yeast and bovine Arp2/3 complexes exist in a distribution among open,(More)
Coronin is a highly conserved actin-associated protein that until now has had unknown biochemical activities. Using microtubule affinity chromatography, we coisolated actin and a homologue of coronin, Crn1p, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell extracts. Crn1p is an abundant component of the cortical actin cytoskeleton and binds to F-actin with high affinity(More)
BACKGROUND WASp family proteins promote actin filament assembly by activating Arp2/3 complex and are regulated spatially and temporally to assemble specialized actin structures used in diverse cellular processes. Some WASp family members are autoinhibited until bound by activating ligands; however, regulation of the budding yeast WASp homolog (Las17/Bee1)(More)
Longstanding evidence supports a role for actin in endocytosis; an intact actin cytoskeleton is required for endocytosis in yeast, and drugs that inhibit actin polymerization inhibit endocytosis in both yeast and mammalian cells. The yeast Arp2/3 complex is required for the internalization step of endocytosis. In addition, some early endocytic events in(More)
Normal cellular development and function require tight spatiotemporal control of actin assembly. Formins are potent actin assembly factors that protect the growing ends of actin filaments from capping proteins. However, it is unresolved how the duration of formin-mediated actin assembly events is controlled, whether formins are actively displaced from(More)