Bruce J. Kirenga

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BACKGROUND Tuberculous pericarditis is associated with high morbidity and mortality even if antituberculosis therapy is administered. We evaluated the effects of adjunctive glucocorticoid therapy and Mycobacterium indicus pranii immunotherapy in patients with tuberculous pericarditis. METHODS Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 1400(More)
BACKGROUND WHO guidelines recommend early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) irrespective of CD4 cell count for all patients with tuberculosis who also have HIV, but evidence supporting this approach is poor quality. We assessed the effect of timing of ART initiation on tuberculosis treatment outcomes for HIV-positive patients with CD4 counts of 220(More)
BACKGROUND Understanding the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is crucial for its control. MDR-TB in previously treated patients is generally attributed to the selection of drug resistant mutants during inadequate therapy rather than transmission of a resistant strain. Traditional genotyping methods are not sufficient to(More)
SETTING A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinic in a setting of high tuberculosis (TB) and HIV prevalence. OBJECTIVE To study the incidence of and factors associated with tuberculin skin test (TST) conversion in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). DESIGN Prospective cohort study of TST-negative, ART-naïve HIV patients (CD4 cell count <(More)
OBJECTIVE Effective implementation of infection control programs and adherence to standard precautions are challenging in resource-limited settings. The objective of this study was to describe infection control knowledge, attitudes, and practices among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Uganda. DESIGN We conducted a survey of hospital employees who had direct(More)
RATIONALE Mycobacterium tuberculosis is transmitted by infectious aerosols, but assessing infectiousness currently relies on sputum microscopy that does not accurately predict the variability in transmission. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the feasibility of collecting cough aerosols and the risk factors for infectious aerosol production from patients with(More)
BACKGROUND Sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis lacks sensitivity in HIV-infected symptomatic patients and increases the likelihood that mycobacterial infections particularly disseminated TB will be missed; delays in diagnosis can be fatal. Given the duration for MTB growth in blood culture, clinical predictors of MTB bacteremia may(More)
INTRODUCTION The existing diagnostic algorithms for sputum smear-negative tuberculosis (TB) are complicated, time-consuming, and often difficult to implement. The decision to initiate TB treatment in resource-limited countries is often largely based on clinical predictors. We sought to determine the clinical predictors and accuracy of empiric TB treatment(More)
BACKGROUND In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the damage to respiratory health caused by biomass smoke and tobacco smoke. We assessed the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and related risk factors in a rural region of Uganda. METHODS We did this prospective observational cross-sectional study in rural Masindi, Uganda. We(More)