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MicroRNAs (miRNA) have emerged as key regulators of cell lineage differentiation and cancer. We used precursor miRNA profiling by a novel real-time QPCR method (i) to define progressive stages of endothelial cell transformation cumulating in Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and (ii) to identify specific miRNAs that serve as biomarkers for tumor progression. We were able(More)
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal, vascular lesion of low-grade malignant potential that presents most frequently in mucocutaneous sites. KS also commonly involves lymph nodes and visceral organs. This article deals with the manifestation of KS in unusual anatomic regions. Unusual locations of KS involvement include the musculoskeletal system, central and(More)
PURPOSE Bardoxolone methyl, a novel synthetic triterpenoid and antioxidant inflammation modulator, potently induces Nrf2 and inhibits NF-κB and Janus-activated kinase/STAT signaling. This first-in-human phase I clinical trial aimed to determine the dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and appropriate dose for phase II studies;(More)
Rituximab plus intravenous bolus chemotherapy is a standard treatment for immunocompetent patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Some studies have suggested that rituximab is associated with excessive toxicity in HIV-associated NHL, and that infusional chemotherapy may be more effective. We performed a randomized phase 2 trial of rituximab (375(More)
BACKGROUND We sought to determine the prevalence of JC virus (JCV) in bone marrow samples from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative patients and to determine whether bone marrow is a site of latency and neurotropic transformation of JCV, the agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). METHODS We collected bone marrow(More)
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is involved in the development of lymphoproliferative diseases and Kaposi's sarcoma. The oncogenicity of this virus is reflected in vitro by its ability to transform B cells and endothelial cells. Infection of dermal microvascular endothelial cells (DMVEC) transforms the cells from a cobblestone-like monolayer(More)
Short DNA sequences have been identified, originally in association with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) biopsies, that are highly homologous to oncogenic, lymphotropic herpesviruses. Recently a virus, Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) or human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), bearing these sequences has been identified in a cell line derived from a body(More)
BACKGROUND This investigation deals with the molecular mechanism of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) action of pentoxifylline (PTX) [1-(5'-oxohexyl)-3, 7-dimethylxanthine] a drug widely used for the treatment of conditions involving defective regional microcirculation. MATERIALS AND METHODS The inhibition by PTX of protein kinase C (PKC)(More)
BACKGROUND In advanced cancers, transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) promotes tumor growth and metastases and suppresses host antitumor immunity. GC1008 is a human anti-TGFβ monoclonal antibody that neutralizes all isoforms of TGFβ. Here, the safety and activity of GC1008 was evaluated in patients with advanced malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma.(More)
The virus-encoded Tat protein strongly activates transcription of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A well-recognized mechanism involves interaction of Tat with the nascent RNA transcript of the viral tar gene; mutation of tar greatly decreases activation by Tat. However, Tat still provides a low level of activation, demonstrating that it also has a(More)