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Factors contributing to retroviral integration have been intractable because past studies have not precisely located genomic sites of proviruses in sufficient numbers for significant analysis. In this study, 903 murine leukemia virus (MLV) and 379 human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) integrations in the human genome were mapped. The data showed that MLV(More)
In late summer 1999, an outbreak of human encephalitis occurred in the northeastern United States that was concurrent with extensive mortality in crows (Corvus species) as well as the deaths of several exotic birds at a zoological park in the same area. Complete genome sequencing of a flavivirus isolated from the brain of a dead Chilean flamingo(More)
The signals that direct membrane proteins to the apical or basolateral plasma membrane domains of polarized epithelial cells are not known. Several of the class of proteins anchored in the membrane by glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) are expressed on the apical surface of such cells. However, it is not known whether the mechanism of membrane anchorage or(More)
Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane proteins and certain protein tyrosine kinases associate with a Triton X-100-insoluble, glycolipid-enriched membrane fraction in MDCK cells. Also, certain protein tyrosine kinases have been shown to associate with GPI-anchored proteins in other cell types. To characterize the interaction between(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) particles typically contain small amounts of the surface envelope protein (SU), and this is widely believed to be due to shedding of SU from mature virions. We purified proteins from HIV-1 and SIV isolates using procedures which allow quantitative measurements of viral(More)
In the plasma membrane of animal cells, many membrane-spanning proteins exhibit lower lateral mobilities than glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked proteins. To determine if the GPI linkage was a major determinant of the high lateral mobility of these proteins, we measured the lateral diffusion of chimeric membrane proteins composed of normally(More)
Integration into the host genome is one of the hallmarks of the retroviral life cycle and is catalyzed by virus-encoded integrases. While integrase has strict sequence requirements for the viral DNA ends, target site sequences have been shown to be very diverse. We carefully examined a large number of integration target site sequences from several(More)
The vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein forms noncovalently linked trimers in the endoplasmic reticulum before being transported to the Golgi apparatus. The experiments reported here were designed to determine if the extracellular domain of the glycoprotein contains structural information sufficient to direct trimer formation. To accomplish this, we(More)
We analyzed coexpression of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein precursor, gp160, and its cellular receptor CD4 in HeLa cells to determine whether the two molecules can interact prior to transport to the cell surface. Results of studies employing coprecipitation, analysis of oligosaccharide processing, and immunocytochemistry showed that(More)
We have recently described an assay in which a temperature-sensitive mutant of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV; mutant tsO45), encoding a glycoprotein that is not transported to the cell surface, can be rescued by expression of wild-type VSV glycoproteins from cDNA (M. Whitt, L. Chong, and J. Rose, J. Virol. 63:3569-3578, 1989). Here we examined the ability(More)