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In late summer 1999, an outbreak of human encephalitis occurred in the northeastern United States that was concurrent with extensive mortality in crows (Corvus species) as well as the deaths of several exotic birds at a zoological park in the same area. Complete genome sequencing of a flavivirus isolated from the brain of a dead Chilean flamingo(More)
The signals that direct membrane proteins to the apical or basolateral plasma membrane domains of polarized epithelial cells are not known. Several of the class of proteins anchored in the membrane by glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) are expressed on the apical surface of such cells. However, it is not known whether the mechanism of membrane anchorage or(More)
Factors contributing to retroviral integration have been intractable because past studies have not precisely located genomic sites of proviruses in sufficient numbers for significant analysis. In this study, 903 murine leukemia virus (MLV) and 379 human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) integrations in the human genome were mapped. The data showed that MLV(More)
In the plasma membrane of animal cells, many membrane-spanning proteins exhibit lower lateral mobilities than glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked proteins. To determine if the GPI linkage was a major determinant of the high lateral mobility of these proteins, we measured the lateral diffusion of chimeric membrane proteins composed of normally(More)
The interaction between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 and the CD4 receptor is highly specific and involves relatively small contact surfaces on both proteins according to crystal structure analysis. This molecularly conserved interaction presents an excellent opportunity for antiviral targeting. Here we report a group of pentavalent(More)
The zinc finger motifs in retroviral nucleocapsid (NC) proteins are essential for viral replication. Disruption of these Cys-X2-Cys-X4-His-X4-Cys zinc-binding structures eliminates infectivity. To determine if N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) can inactivate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) preparations by alkylating(More)
The sequential interaction of the envelope glycoprotein of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with CD4 and certain chemokine coreceptors initiates host cell entry of the virus. The appropriate chemokines have been shown to inhibit viral replication by blocking interaction of the gp120 envelope protein with the coreceptors. We considered the(More)
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