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The services of ecological systems and the natural capital stocks that produce them are critical to the functioning of the Earth's life-support system. They contribute to human welfare, both directly and indirectly, and therefore represent part of the total economic value of the planet. We have estimated the current economic value of 17 ecosystem services(More)
A summary is provided of the early history of research on the flow of nonrenewable energy resources through the economy and of the flow of renewable energy resources through a natural ecosystem. The techniques are similar, and many specific applications are provided. A combined economic and ecological technique is also defined. The early history and people(More)
Conflict is a dynamic and complex form of human interaction, often emerging from incompatible actions, values and goals, and consuming a considerable amount of resources. Conflicts are an expression of and a contribution to system instability and sometimes lead to chaotic escalation between adversaries, causing a breakdown of social and natural systems. To(More)
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