Bruce H. Keswick

Learn More
We conducted a study to determine if use of a new flocculant-disinfectant home water treatment reduced diarrhea. We randomly assigned 492 rural Guatemalan households to five different water treatment groups: flocculant-disinfectant, flocculant-disinfectant plus a customized vessel, bleach, bleach plus a vessel, and control. During one year of observation,(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the effect on prevalence of diarrhoea and mortality of household based treatment of drinking water with flocculant-disinfectant, sodium hypochlorite, and standard practices in areas with turbid water source in Africa. DESIGN Cluster randomised controlled trial over 20 weeks. SETTING Family compounds, each containing several houses,(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness of point of use water treatment with flocculent-disinfectant on reducing diarrhoea and the additional benefit of promoting hand washing with soap. METHODS The study was conducted in squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan, where diarrhoea is a leading cause of childhood death. Interventions were randomly assigned(More)
AIMS Point-of-use drinking water disinfection with sodium hypochlorite has been shown to improve water quality and reduce diarrhoeal disease. However, the chlorine demand of highly turbid water may render sodium hypochlorite less effective. METHODS AND RESULTS We evaluated a novel combined flocculant-disinfectant point-of-use water treatment product and(More)
Norwalk virus in water was found to be more resistant to chlorine inactivation than poliovirus type 1 (LSc2Ab), human rotavirus (Wa), simian rotavirus (SA11), or f2 bacteriophage. A 3.75 mg/liter dose of chlorine was found to be effective against other viruses but failed to inactivate Norwalk virus. The Norwalk virus inoculum remained infectious for five of(More)
We conducted a study to determine if soap containing 1.2% triclocarban would be effective in reducing the incidence of impetigo. We randomized 162 households in a low-income neighborhood of Karachi, Pakistan, to receive a regular supply of 1.2% triclocarban-containing soap (n = 81) or an identically appearing placebo (n = 81); 79 households in a nearby(More)
In areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis, progression of lymphoedema is associated with recurrent bacterial acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA). The role of antibacterial soap in preventing ADLA is unknown. In a randomized double-blinded clinical trial in Leogane, Haiti, lymphoedema patients washed affected legs with antibacterial (n = 97) or plain soap(More)
The occurrence of viruses in conventionally treated drinking water derived from a heavily polluted source was evaluated by collecting and analyzing 38 large-volume (65- to 756-liter) samples of water from a 9 m3/s (205 X 10(6) gallons [776 X 10(6) liters] per day) water treatment plant. Samples of raw, clarified, filtered, and chlorinated finished water(More)
Enteric and respiratory viruses are among the most frequent causes of human infections, and hands play an important role in the spread of these and many other viral diseases. Regular and proper hand hygiene by caregivers and food handlers in particular is essential to decontaminate hands and potentially interrupt such spread. What would be considered a(More)