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We conducted a study to determine if use of a new flocculant-disinfectant home water treatment reduced diarrhea. We randomly assigned 492 rural Guatemalan households to five different water treatment groups: flocculant-disinfectant, flocculant-disinfectant plus a customized vessel, bleach, bleach plus a vessel, and control. During one year of observation,(More)
Norwalk virus in water was found to be more resistant to chlorine inactivation than poliovirus type 1 (LSc2Ab), human rotavirus (Wa), simian rotavirus (SA11), or f2 bacteriophage. A 3.75 mg/liter dose of chlorine was found to be effective against other viruses but failed to inactivate Norwalk virus. The Norwalk virus inoculum remained infectious for five of(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness of point of use water treatment with flocculent-disinfectant on reducing diarrhoea and the additional benefit of promoting hand washing with soap. METHODS The study was conducted in squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan, where diarrhoea is a leading cause of childhood death. Interventions were randomly assigned(More)
In an earlier study in rural Guatemala, 257 households that received flocculant-disinfectant to treat their drinking water had 39% less diarrhea than 257 control households. Three weeks after completion of the study, national marketing of the flocculant-disinfectant was extended into the study communities. Six months later, we assessed frequency of and(More)
Contamination of drinking water by microorganisms and arsenic represents a major human health hazard in many parts of the world. An estimated 3.4 million deaths a year are attributable to waterborne diseases. Arsenic poisoning from contaminated water sources is causing a major health emergency in some countries such as Bangladesh where 35 to 77 million(More)
To better define the optimum timing of specimen collection and identify alternate ways to diagnose Norwalk virus outbreaks, we looked at the timing of the antibody response and virus excretion in a human volunteer study. The Norwalk virus antibody titers and antigen in stool specimens were examined by biotin-avidin immunoassay. Our data suggest that in(More)
AIMS Point-of-use drinking water disinfection with sodium hypochlorite has been shown to improve water quality and reduce diarrhoeal disease. However, the chlorine demand of highly turbid water may render sodium hypochlorite less effective. METHODS AND RESULTS We evaluated a novel combined flocculant-disinfectant point-of-use water treatment product and(More)
In areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis, progression of lymphoedema is associated with recurrent bacterial acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA). The role of antibacterial soap in preventing ADLA is unknown. In a randomized double-blinded clinical trial in Leogane, Haiti, lymphoedema patients washed affected legs with antibacterial (n = 97) or plain soap(More)
The occurrence of viruses in conventionally treated drinking water derived from a heavily polluted source was evaluated by collecting and analyzing 38 large-volume (65- to 756-liter) samples of water from a 9 m3/s (205 X 10(6) gallons [776 X 10(6) liters] per day) water treatment plant. Samples of raw, clarified, filtered, and chlorinated finished water(More)
Previously, we demonstrated that children in day care centers commonly experience diarrhea due to rotavirus, giardia, and bacterial pathogens. Multiple agents frequently coexist, and the environment is heavily contaminated with enteric bacteria during outbreaks. A study of environmental surface contamination with rotavirus was performed during three(More)