Bruce H. Howard

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The adenoviral oncoprotein E1A induces progression through the cell cycle by binding to the products of the p300/CBP and retinoblastoma gene families. A new cellular p300/CBP-associated factor (P/CAF) having intrinsic histone acetylase activity has been identified that competes with E1A. Exogenous expression of P/CAF in HeLa cells inhibits cell-cycle(More)
p300/CBP is a transcriptional adaptor that integrates signals from many sequence-specific activators via direct interactions. Various cellular and viral factors target p300/CBP to modulate transcription and/or cell cycle progression. One such factor, the cellular p300/CBP associated factor (PCAF), possesses intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity.(More)
We constructed a series of recombinant genomes which directed expression of the enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) in mammalian cells. The prototype recombinant in this series, pSV2-cat, consisted of the beta-lactamase gene and origin of replication from pBR322 coupled to a simian virus 40 (SV40) early transcription region into which CAT coding(More)
Human diploid fibroblasts eventually lose the capacity to replicate in culture and enter a viable but nonproliferative state of senescence. Recently, it has been demonstrated that retroviral-mediated gene transfer into primary fibroblasts of an activated ras gene (V12ras) rapidly accelerates development of the senescent phenotype. Using this in vitro(More)
Human histone deacetylases I (HDAC1) and II (HDAC2) are homologous proteins (84% identity) that catalyze release of acetyl groups from modified N-terminal lysines of core histones. Histone deacetylation is correlated with both transient and persistent states of transcriptional inactivity (i.e. silencing) in many eukaryotes. In this study, we analyzed(More)
A unique aspect of the retrovirus life cycle is the obligatory integration of the provirus into host cell chromosomes. Unlike viruses that do not integrate, retroviruses must conserve an ability to activate transcription from a chromatin context. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 encodes an unusual and an unusually potent transcriptional transactivator,(More)
PCAF is a histone acetyltransferase that associates with p300/CBP and competes with E1A for access to them. While exogenous expression of PCAF potentiates both MyoD-directed transcription and myogenic differentiation, PCAF inactivation by anti-PCAF antibody microinjection prevents differentiation. MyoD interacts directly with both p300/CBP and PCAF, forming(More)
The p21(WAF1/CIP1/sdi1) gene product (WAF1) inhibits DNA replication in vitro (J. Chen, P. Jackson, M. Kirschner, and A. Dutta, Nature 374:386-388, 1995; S. Waga, G. Hannon, D. Beach, and B. Stillman, Nature 369:574-578, 1994), but in vivo studies on the antiproliferative activity of WAF1 have not resolved G1-phase arrest from potential inhibition of(More)
We have investigated ligand-dependent negative regulation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone beta (TSHbeta) gene. Thyroid hormone (T3) markedly repressed activity of the TSHbeta promoter that had been stably integrated into GH(3 )pituitary cells, through the conserved negative regulatory element (NRE) in the promoter. By DNA affinity binding assay, we show(More)
We characterized the transcriptional activity of the long terminal repeat (LTR) of Rous sarcoma virus by constructing a recombinant plasmid, pRSVcat, in which bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT; acetyl-CoA:chloramphenicol 3-O-acetyltransferase, EC 2.3.1.28) coding sequences are placed under LTR control. We find that the LTR directs relatively(More)