Bruce H Horwitz

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Newer members of the B7-CD28 superfamily include the receptor PD-1 and its two ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. Here, we characterize the expression of PD-1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 in tissues of naive miceand in target organs from two models of autoimmunity, the pancreas from non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and brain from mice with experimental autoimmune(More)
Inflammatory bowel diseases, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, increase the risk of colorectal cancer in humans. It has been recently shown in humans and animal models that intestinal microbiota and host immunity are integral in the progression of large bowel diseases. Lymphocytes are widely believed to prevent bacterially induced(More)
Campylobacter jejuni continues to be a leading cause of bacterial enteritis in humans. However, because there are no readily available animal models to study the pathogenesis of C. jejuni-related diseases, the significance of potential virulence factors, such as cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), in vivo are poorly understood. Mice deficient in NF-kappaB(More)
NF-kappaB binding sites are present in the promoter regions of many acute phase and inflammatory response genes, suggesting that NF-kappaB plays an important role in the initiation of innate immune responses. However, targeted mutations of the various NF-kappaB family members have yet to identify members responsible for this critical role. RelA-deficient(More)
Intact interleukin-10 receptor (IL-10R) signaling on effector and T regulatory (Treg) cells are each independently required to maintain immune tolerance. Here we show that IL-10 sensing by innate immune cells, independent of its effects on T cells, was critical for regulating mucosal homeostasis. Following wild-type (WT) CD4(+) T cell transfer,(More)
Interleukin 10 receptor (IL10R)-deficient mice develop spontaneous colitis and, similarly, patients with loss-of-function mutations in IL10R develop severe infant-onset inflammatory bowel disease. Loss of IL10R signaling in mouse and human macrophages is associated with increased production of interleukin 1β. We demonstrated that innate immune production of(More)
To evaluate the possibility that NF-kappaB subunits p50 and p65 have a role in limiting the systemic inflammatory response induced by endotoxin, we compared the susceptibility of wild-type (WT), p65+/-, p50-/-, and p50-/-p65+/- (3X) mice to LPS-induced shock. Interestingly, whereas p65+/- mice were no more sensitive than WT mice to LPS-induced shock, 3X(More)
Although immunoglobulin (Ig)M(hi)IgD(lo/-)CD21(hi) marginal zone B cells represent a significant proportion of naive peripheral splenic B lymphocytes, few of the genes that regulate their development have been identified. This subset of peripheral B cells fails to emerge in mice that lack nuclear factor (NF)-kappa Bp50. Less drastic reductions in marginal(More)
Pioneering work in the 1990s first linked a novel microaerobic bacterium, Helicobacter hepaticus, with chronic active hepatitis and inflammatory bowel disease in several murine models. Targeted H. hepaticus infection experiments subsequently demonstrated its ability to induce colitis, colorectal cancer, and extraintestinal diseases in a number of mouse(More)
Inflammation associated with bacterial infections is a risk factor for cancers in humans, yet its role in breast cancer remains poorly understood. We have previously shown that innate immune inflammatory response against intestinal bacteria is sufficient to induce colon cancer. Here we report that infecting Rag2-deficient C57BL/6 Apc(Min/+) mice with an(More)