Bruce Gardner

Learn More
PURPOSE To examine the third version of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM III) for reliability and validity in a multi-center cohort study. METHOD Four hundred and twenty-five patients with spinal cord lesions from 13 spinal cord units in six countries from three continents were assessed with SCIM III and the Functional Independence measure (FIM)(More)
Mortality, morbidity, health, functional, and psychosocial outcomes were examined in 834 individuals with long term spinal cord injuries. All were treated at one of two British spinal injury centres: the National Spinal Injuries Centre at Stoke Mandeville Hospital or the Regional Spinal Injuries Centre in Southport; all were 20 or more years post injury.(More)
Twenty eight patients with severe, intractable spasticity have been treated by chronic intrathecal administration of baclofen. An implantable programmable drug-administration-device (DAD) was used with a permanent intrathecal catheter. Infusion of 50 to 800 micrograms/day of baclofen completely abolished spasticity. Follow-up was up to two years.(More)
The aims of this study were to examine long-term survival in a population-based sample of spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors in Great Britain, identify risk factors contributing to deaths and explore trends in cause of death over the decades following SCI. Current survival status was successfully identified in 92.3% of the study sample. Standardised(More)
BACKGROUND A third version of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM III), made up of three subscales, was formulated following comments by experts from several countries and Rasch analysis performed on the previous version. OBJECTIVE To examine the validity, reliability, and usefulness of SCIM III using Rasch analysis. DESIGN Multicenter cohort(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the peripheral anatomical distribution of innervation within muscle bundles of the detrusor and the changes arising in neurogenic detrusor overactivity (DO). PATIENTS AND METHODS Full-thickness samples from the bladder dome of three cadaveric transplant organ donors and four people with neurogenic DO caused by spinal cord injury were(More)
C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured serially in 16 patients with an acute spinal injury. Twelve episodes of acute urinary tract infection (UTI) occurred during the study period. These were all associated with an increased concentration of CRP greater than 50 mg/l, which returned to normal after successful treatment. Thirteen episodes of asymptomatic(More)
AIMS Risk of treatment-related problems in spinal cord injury (SCI) mandates assessment of complication rates of different bladder management methods (BMMs). The current study evaluated aging-related complications of various BMMs over a 6-year period in a population with spinal cord injury for at least 20 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS Clinical parameters(More)
STUDY DESIGN Longitudinal observational. OBJECTIVES To examine frequency and duration of hospital readmissions in a population based sample of people with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) and to look at medical reasons necessitating readmissions and factors influencing them. SETTING National Spinal Injuries Centre, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, Aylesbury,(More)
STUDY DESIGN A pilot postal survey. OBJECTIVE To examine the levels of sporting/recreational activities, education and employment in people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to assess if involvement in sport and recreation is associated with higher levels of education and employment. SETTING National Spinal Injuries Centre (NSIC), Stoke Mandeville(More)