Bruce F. Walker

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Babies who are small at birth or during infancy have increased rates of cardiovascular disease and non-insulin-dependent diabetes as adults. Some of these babies have low birthweights, some are small in relation to the size of their placentas, some are thin at birth, and some are short at birth and fail to gain weight in infancy. This paper shows how fetal(More)
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA The analysis of centre of pressure (COP) excursions is used as an index of postural stability in standing. Conflicting data have been reported over the past 20 years regarding the reliability of COP measures and no standard procedure for COP measure use in study design has been established. SEARCH METHODS Six online databases(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the characteristics of Australian adults who seek care for low back pain (LBP), including the type of care they choose and any factors associated with making those choices. DESIGN A population-based mailed survey. SUBJECTS An age, gender, and state stratified random sample of 2768 Australian adults selected from the Electoral(More)
This paper reports the results of a "cost-of-illness" study of low back pain (LBP) in Australian adults. It estimates the direct cost of LBP in 2001 to be AU dollars 1.02 billion. Approximately 71% of this amount is for treatment by chiropractors, general practitioners, massage therapists, physiotherapists and acupuncturists. However, the direct costs are(More)
In this prospective study, the relationship between energy and fat consumption and the risk of breast cancer was examined. Between 1977 and 1983, 31,209 Norwegian women, 20 to 54 years of age attended a health screening. The attendees were given a food-frequency questionnaire to be completed at home, and this was returned by 25,892 (83%). During the 7 to 13(More)
STUDY DESIGN A modified Delphi study conducted with 28 experts in back pain research from 12 countries. OBJECTIVE To identify standardized definitions of low back pain that could be consistently used by investigators in prevalence studies to provide comparable data. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Differences in the definition of back pain prevalence in(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence ranges of low back pain (LBP) together with any related disability in Australian adults. DESIGN A population-based survey. METHODS The survey was mailed in June 2001 to a stratified random sample of 3000 Australian adults selected from the Electoral Roll. Demographic variables of respondents were compared with the(More)
Certain opioids release histamine from cutaneous mast cells to produce local wheal and flare responses and adverse hemodynamic effects. In vivo responses to opioids suggest that cutaneous responses result from the interaction of opioids with opioid receptors on human mast cells. There are no data evaluating or comparing the opioids currently used in(More)
Over the past 20 years, the center of pressure (COP) has been commonly used as an index of postural stability in standing. While many studies investigated COP excursions in low back pain patients and healthy individuals, no comprehensive analysis of the reported differences in postural sway pattern exists. Six online databases were systematically searched(More)
STUDY DESIGN Blinded parallel-group randomized controlled trial. OBJECTIVE Establish the frequency and severity of adverse effects from short-term usual chiropractic treatment of the spine when compared with a sham treatment group. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Previous studies have demonstrated that adverse events occur during chiropractic treatment.(More)